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Design

TermDefinition
What are Performance design drivers? 1.)Wing Loading meet airworthiness regulation requirements and Design Specification requirements 2.)Max speed + Minimum Climb gradient - Drive Low wing load design 3.)Cruise efficiency + Insensitivity to gust - Drive High wing load design
What are Flying Quality design drivers? - Stall must be symmetric, Start inboard and Not lead to large nose up pitching moment -Sufficient design margins such that the wing doesn't experience dangerous dynamic loading d to flow seperation at any point in flight envelope
What are Flying Quality design drivers? -Wing insensitivity to gust -Wing contribution to aerodynamic stability derivatives should lead to flight dynamics appropriate to safe and efficient flight controls (via piolt or computer)
What are Stuctural Framework design drivers? -Minimise structural mass + Meet airworthiness regulation -Framework must support wing system + Fuel + Propulsion engine + High Lift
What are Internal volume design drivers? -Wing internal volume = Primary fuel storage + Inertial relief -Minimum wing size of long range aircraft may be limited by available fuel volume
What are the advantages of Low Wing ? -Easier to service -Structurally simple spars can be carried through fuselage -Wing shield fuselage in the event of a crash + Act as flotation device
What are some disadvantages of Low wing design? - Less aerodynamically efficient compared to High and Mid wing -Reduced ground Clearance = Higher likelihood of debris
What are the advantages of High Wing ? -Higher aerodynamically efficiency -Cleaner air( Less disturbed) - Greater engine clearance : Larger engines + BPR - Lower centre of gravity = Natural stability
What are the disadvantages of High Wing ? -Harder to manufacture wing + Fuselage - Harder to mantaine flaps + Wings + Engines -Reniforment of fuselage
What are the Disadvantages of Mid Wing ? - Structurally worse than High + Low -Additional supports in fuselage for wings = weight
Aspect Ratio AR=Span/ SMC = Span^2/Gross Area
Advantages of high AR ratio? - long thinner wings = Improves L/D -More stable -Additional support and inertial relief required -Cost is increased weight -Less induced drag -Less power required to maintain speed = less fuel consumption
Disadvantages of high AR ratio? - Long thinner wing -Additional support and inertial relief required -Cost is increased weight
Disadvantages of low AR ratio? -More induced drag -More power required to maintain speed = fuel consumption increases
Advantages of Low AR ratio? - Less stability = More manoeuvrable -More induced drag -Less L/d -Lower wing weight
Aspect ratio and Airworthness - A higher aspect ratio in the event of an engine failure will meet Airworthniness requirement with greater ease than a low aspect ratio
Advantages Structural effects of taper vs no taper - Wing taper shifts load distribution inboard and hence reduces wing root being moment leading to a lighter structure compared to untapered wing
Aerodynamic effects of taper -Given AR,Induced Drag is minimised when the load (and hence chord distribution is elliptical For constant aerofoil section, tapered wings required more twist (washout) to maintain a uniform angle of attack along the span
Wing profile selection - High speed performance: High L/D at medium CL and high M - Low Speed Performance: High Lift + Low Mach
Supercritical Airfoil -Delay the onset of wave drag at transonic speed -Flattened upper surface -Highly cambered (Curved) Aft section -Greater Leading edge radius
Thickness to Chord Ratio Minimum Drag -Small as possible
Thickness to Chord Ratio Minimum Strutural weight - Large as posssibke
No taper - Wings are square and easy to manufacture
Advantages of Wing sweep - Reduces component of velocity normal to leading edge -Increases wing critical Mach number for the same thickness or -Allows greater thickness for the same critical mach number -Increases Roll sensitivity
Disadvantages of Wing sweep ? -Increases Mass of the wing to offset torsional load -Reduces CL max( Flaps effectiveness depends of t.e sweep) -Reduces aileron effectiveness due to spanwise flow towards tips -Risk Tip stall -Increase Boundary layer thickness= Increase Drag
Dihedral angle advantages ? -Increases engine clearance - Increases lateral stability in Yaw - Better cross wind performance
Created by: Studybuddy321123
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