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Physical Science 2

TermDefinition
Archimede's Principle buoyant force is equal to weight displaced
pressure equation force / area
Pascal's Principle pressure applied through fluid is transmitted throughout fluid (F1 / A1 = F2 / A2)
Bernouli's Principle when velocity of a stream increases, pressure decreases
Boyle's Law when pressure increases, volume decreases (P1 x V1 = P2 x V2)
Gay-Lussac Law pressure and temperature have a direct relationship (P1 / T1 = P2 / T2)
Charle's Law temperature and volume have a direct relationship (V1 / T1 = V2 / T2)
suspension hetergenous mixture made of large particles that settle (medicine, paint, lemonade)
colloid hetergenous mixture with particles that never settle (milk, fog, muddy water)
solution homogenous mixture (tea, vinegar, pop)
fossil fuels fuel formed by remains of ancient plants and animals
types of fossil fuels petroleum, natural gas. coal
nuclear fusion converting mass into energy by atmoic nuclei
nuclear fision splitting U-235 atoms to produce thermal energy
wave undulations that transfer energy
frequency how many cycles or vibrations per second
frequency equation wave speed / wave length
transverse waves particles vibrate perpendiculary to direction the wave is traveling
parts of transverse wave crest, trough, wave lenth, amplitude
compression waves particles vibrate parallel to direction the wave is travelling
parts of compression waves compression, rarafraction
wave equation velocity = frequency x wave length
reflection waves bouncing off an object
refraction bending of waves to different materials
diffraction bending of waves as they go around a barrier
standing wave wave pattern that results when two w avevs continuosy pass through each other in opposite directions
sound wave compression wave caused by vibrating objects
audible sound humans can hear between 20 Hz and 20,000 Hz
pitch how high or low sounds are, depends on frequency
sound intensity amount of energy that passes through an arera in a certain time
electromagnetic waves waves produced by oscillating magnetic and electric fields
law of reflection angle of incidence equals angle of reflection
parts of eye cornea, iris, pupil, leans, retina, optic nerve
parts of ear outer ear, tympanic membrane, cochlea
primary colors of light red, blue, green (makes white)
primary pigments colors magenta, cyan, yellow (makes blue)
incadescent light generated by heating metal filament, usually tungsten
fluorescent light uses phosphors to covert ultra violet rays to visible light
incoherent light can have multiple wave lengths, colors, and travels in many directions
coherent light has one wave lengths, travels in one direction
plane mirror flat, smooth mirror (upright, same size, reversed, virtual)
concave mirror curves in (upright/inverted, bigger/smaller, real/virtual)
convex mirror curves out (upright, smaller, virtual, reversed)
concave lens curves in (upright, smaller, virtual, diverging, nearsighted)
convex lens curves out (upright/inverted, larger/smaller, virtual/real, converging, farsighted)
kinetic theory an explanation on how particles in gases behave
physical change change in size, shape, or state of matter where identity is the same
chemical change change of substance to another
parts of atom nucleus, proton, nuetron, electron
atomic number number of protons in atom's nucleus
mass number sum of protons and nuetrons in nucleus
isotopes atoms of same element that have different number of nuetrons
average atomic mass average mass of all naturally occuring isotopes
valence electrons electrons in outermost sublevel of an atom
ion particle that has more or fewer electrons that protons
solubility max amount of solute that can be dissolved in a given amount of solvent at a given temperature
ionization process in which molecular compounds dissolve in water and form charged particles
dissociation proccess in whihc positive and negatives ions in an ionic solid mix with solvent to foram a solution
acid substance that produces H+ molecules in a water solution
properties of acids sour taste, corrosive, pH less than 7
base substance that produces hydroxide ions (OH) when dissolved in water
properties of bases bitter taste, corrosive, pH greater than 7
buffers solutions that contain ions that react with acids and bases to minimize their effects on pH
Created by: moriahellefson