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Psy chapt 12

Psychology chapter 12

Social psychology The study of how people influence other people’s thoughts, feelings, and actions.
Ingroups Those groups to which particular people belong.
Outgroups Those to which they do not belong.
Reciprocity Means that if Person A helps (or harms) Person B willl help (or harm) Person A. In other words, if you scratch my back, I will scratch yours.
Transitity Means that people generally share their friends' opinions of other people. If Person A and Person B are friends, then if Person A likes Person C and dislikes Person D, then Person B will also tend to like Person C and dislike Person D.
outgroup homogeneity effect The tendency to view outgroup members as less varied than ingroup members.
social identity theory The idea that ingroups consist of individuals who perceive themselves to be members of the same social category and experience pride through their group membership.
ingroup favoritism The tendency for people to evaluate favorably and privilege members of the ingroup more than members of the outgroup.
social facilitation The idea that the presence of others generally enhances performance.
Deindividuation A state of reduced individuality, reduced self-awareness, and reduced attention to personal standards; this phenomenon may occur when people are part of a group.
group polarization The process by which initial attitudes of groups become more extreme over time.
groupthink The tendency of groups to make bad decisions when the group is under pressure, facing external threats, and is biased.
social loafing The tendency for people to not work as hard in a group than when working alone.
conformity The altering of one’s behaviors and opinions to match those of other people or to match other people’s expectations.
Normative influence The tendency for people to conform in order to fit in with the group.
Informational influence The tendency for people to conform when they assume that the behavior of others represents the correct way to respond.
social norms Expected standards of conduct, which influence behavior.
compliance The tendency to agree to do things requested by others.
obedience When a person follows the orders of a person of authority.
foot-in-the-door effect The idea that if people agree to a small request, they become more likely to comply with a large and undesirable request.
Aggression Any behavior that involves the intention to harm another
Prosocial behaviors Actions that tend to benefit others, such as doing favors or helping.
Altruism Providing help when it is needed, without any apparent reward for doing so.
inclusive fitness An explanation for altruism that focuses on the adaptive benefit of transmitting genes, such as through kin selection, rather than focusing on individual survival.
bystander intervention effect The failure to offer help by those who observe someone in need when other people are present.
attitudes People’s evaluations of objects, of events, or of ideas.
mere exposure effect The idea that greater exposure to a stimulus leads to greater liking for it.
Explicit attitudes Attitudes that a person can report.
implicit attitudes Attitudes that influence a person’s feelings and behavior at an unconscious level.
cognitive dissonance An uncomfortable mental state resulting from a contradiction between two attitudes or between an attitude and a behavior.
Persuasion The active and conscious effort to change an attitude through the transmission of a message.
elaboration likelihood model The idea that persuasive messages lead to attitude changes in two ways: via the central route or via the peripheral route.
nonverbal behavior The facial expressions, gestures, mannerisms, and movements by which one communicates with others.
Attributions People’s explanations for why events or actions occur.
Personal attributions Explanations of people’s behavior that refer to their internal characteristics, such as abilities, traits, moods, or efforts.
Situational attributions Explanations of people’s behavior that refer to external events, such as the weather, luck, accidents, or other people’s actions.
fundamental attribution error In explaining other people’s behavior, the tendency to overemphasize personality traits and underestimate situational factors.
Prejudice Negative feelings, opinions, and beliefs associated with a stereotype.
Discrimination The inappropriate and unjustified treatment of people as a result of prejudice.
modern racism Subtle forms of prejudice that coexist with the rejection of racist beliefs.
“what is beautiful is good” stereotype The belief that attractive people are superior in most ways.
Passionate love A state of intense longing and desire.
Companionate lov A strong commitment based on friendship, trust, respect, and intimacy.
Created by: Haleyannestes