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U.T ASNT Lvl II

The wave mode that has multiple or varying wave velocities is ___________. (A) Longitudinal waves (B) Shear waves (C)Transverse waves (D) Lamb waves (D) Lamb waves
Which of the following would be considered application(s) of ultrasonic techniques? (A) Determination of a material's elastic modules. ( B) Study of a material's metallurgical structure. (C) Measurement of a material's thickness. (D) All of the above (D) All of the above
The only significant sound wave mode that travels through a liquid is ___________. (A) Shear wave (B) Longitudinal wave (C) Surface wave (D) Rayleigh wave (B) Longitudinal
The acoustic impedance of a material is used to determine the __________. (A) Angle of refraction at an interface (B) Attenuation within the material (C) Relative amounts of sound energy coupled through and reflected at the interface (D) Beam spread within the material (C) Relative amounts of sound energy coupled through and reflected at the interface.
When angle beam contact testing a test piece, increasing the incident angle until the second critical angle is reached results in__________. (A) Total reflection of a surface wave (B) 45° refraction of a shear wave (C) Production of a surface wave (D) No-one of the above (C) Production of a surface wave
Acoustic energy propagates and different modes. Which of the following represents a mode? (A) A longitudinal wave (B) A Shear wave (C) A surface wave (D) All of the above (D) All of the above
The simple experiment where a stick in a glass of water appears disjointed at the water surface illustrates the phenomenon of __________. (A) Reflection (B) Magnification (C) Refraction (D) Diffraction (C) Refraction
The crystal thickness and transducer frequency are related. The thinner the crystal ______________. (A) The lower the frequency (B) The higher the frequency (C) There is no appreciable effect (D) None of the above (B) The higher the frequency
The random distribution of crystallographic direction in Alloys with large crystalline structures is a factor in determining ______________. (A) acoustic noise levels (B) selection of test frequency (C) scattering of sound (D) all of the above (D) all of the above
The length of the Zone adjacent to a transducer in which functions and sound pressure occur is most likely affected by ________________. (A) frequency of the transducer (B) the diameter of the transducer (C) the length of the transducer cable (D) Both A) and B) (D) Both A) and B)
The differences in signals received from identical reflectors at different material distances from a transducer may be caused by _____________. (A) Material attenuation (B) Beam divergence (C) Near field effects (D) All of the above (D) All of the above
It is possible for a discontinuity smaller than transducer to produce indications of fluctuating amplitude as the transducer is moved laterally if testing is being performed in the _____. (A) Fraunhofer zone (B) Near field (C) Snell field (D) Shadow zone (B) Near field
In immersion testing, the near field effects of a transducer may be eliminated by___________. (A) increasing transducer frequency (B) using a large-diameter transducer (C) using an appropriate water path (D) using a focused transducer (C) using an appropriate water path
In the far field of a uniform ultrasonic beam, sound intensity is a ________ the beam Center Line. (A) Minimum at (B) Maximum at (C) Maximum throughout twice the angle (sin Y=C/Df) Where is acoustic velocity, D is crystal diameter, and f is frequency at (D) Not related to orientation of (B) Maximum at
Which of the following may result in a long narrow rod if the beam divergence results in a reflection from a side of the test piece before the sound wave reaches the back surface? (A) multiple indications before the first back reflection (B) indications for multiple surface reflections (C) conversion from the longitudinal mode to Shear mode (D) loss of front surface indications (C) conversion from the longitudinal mode to shear mode
Where does beam Divergence occur? (A) Near field (B) Far field (C) At the crystal (D) No-one of the above (B) Far field
As frequency increases in ultrasonic testing, the angle of beam Divergence of a given diameter Crystal ___________. (A) Decreases (B) Remains unchanged (C) Remains the same (D) Varies uniformly through each wavelength (A) Decreases
As the radius of curvature of a curved lenses increased, the focal length of the lens ____________. (A) Increases (B) Decreases (C) Remains the same (D) Cannot be determined unless the frequency is known (A) Increases
When examining materials for planar flaws oriented parallel to the part surface, what testing method is most often used? (A) angle beam (B) Through-transmission (C) straight beam (D) dual crystal (C) straight beam
If a contact angle beam transducer produces a 45° Shear wave in steel, the angle produced by the same transducer in aluminum specimen would be (VS (steel) =0.323cm ; VS (Al) =0.310cm) (A) less than 45° (B) greater than 45° (C) 45° (D) unknown: more information is required (A) less than 45°
Rayleigh waves are influenced miss by defects located ___________. (A) close to or on the surface (B) 1 wavelength below the surface (C) 3 wavelengths below the surface (D) 6 wavelengths before the surface (A) close to or on the surface
The ultrasonic testing technique in which finger damping is most effective in locating a discontinuity is the _____________. (A) Shear wave technique (B) longitudinal wave technique (C) surface wave technique (D) compressional wave technique (C) surface wave technique
Lamb waves can be used to detect ______________. (A) laminar-type defects near the surface of the thin material (B) lack of fusion in the center of a thick weldment (C) internal voids in diffusion bonds (D) thickness changes in heavy plate material (A) laminar-type defects near the surface of the thin material
The ratio of the velocity of sound in water compared to that of aluminum or steel is approximately _____________. (A) 1:8 (B) 1:4 (C) 1:3 (D) 1:2 (B) 1:4
Which of the following scanning methods could be classified as an immersion type test? (A)tank in which the transducer & test pieced are immersed (B)squirter bubbler method in which the sound is transmitted in a column of flowing water (C)scanning w/ a wheel type transducer w/ the transducer inside a liquid-filled Tire (D)all of the above (D) All of the above
In an immersion test of a piece of steel or aluminum, the water distance appears on the display as a fairly wide space between the initial pulse and the front service reflection because of ________. (A) reduced velocity of sound in water as compared to test specimen (B)increased velocity of sound in water as compared to test specimen (C) temperature of water (D) all of the above (A) reduce velocity of sound in water as compared to test specimen
What law can be used to calculate the angle of refraction within a metal for both longitudinal and Shear waves? (A) poisson's ratio law (B) Snell's law (C) Fresnel's field law (D) Charles's law (B) Snell's law
At an interface between two different materials, and impedance difference results in __________. (A) reflection of the entire incident energy at the interface (B) absorption of sound (C) division of sound energy into transmitted and reflective modes (D) none of the above (C) division of sound energy into transmitted and reflected modes
When using focused transducers, nonsymmetry in a propagated sound beam it may be caused by __________. (A) packing material variations (B) lens centering or misalignment (C) porosity and lenses (D) all of the above (D) all of the above
Ultrasonic wheel units may be used for which of the following types of examination? (A) straight or longitudinal examination. (B) angle beam or Shear wave examination. (C) surface wave or Rayleigh wave examination. (D) all of the above (D) All of the above
During straight beam testing, test specimens with non-parallel front and back Services can cause ___________. (A) partial or total loss of back reflection. (B) no loss in back reflection. (C) A widened (broad) back reflection indication. (D) a focused (narrow) back reflection indication (A) partial or total loss of back reflection
In the immersion technique, the distance between the face of the transducer and the test surface (water path) is usually adjusted so that the time required to send the sound beam through the water (A)is = to the time required for sound to pass through the test peace (B)is greater than the time required for the sound to travel through the test piece (C)is less than the time required for the sound to travel through the test peace (D)none of the above (B) is greater than the time required for the sound to travel through the test piece
In a b scan display, the length of a screen indication from a discontinuity is related to
In a b scan display, the length of a screen indication from a discontinuity is related to ____________. (A) A discontinuity's thickness is measured parallel to the ultrasonic beam (B) The discontinuity's length in the direction of the transducer travel (C) Both A and B (D) No-one of the above (B) The discontinuity's length in the direction of the transducer travel
Which circuit triggers the pulser sweep circuits in an A-scan display? (A) receiver-amplifier (B) power supply (C) clock (D) damping (C) clock
On an A-scan display, the "dead zone" refers to ____________. (A) The distance contained within the near field (B) the area outside the beam spread (C) the distance covered by the front surface pulse width and recovery time (D) the area between the near field & far field (C) the distance covered by the front surface pulse width and recovery time
On an A-scan display, what represents the intensity of a reflected beam? (A) echo pulse width (B) horizontal screen location (C) signal brightness (D) signal amplitude (D) signal amplitude
Of the following scan types, which one can be used to produce a recording of flaw areas superimposed over a plan view of the test piece? (A) A-scan (B) B-scan (C) C-scan (D) D-scan (C) C-scan
An immersion testing in a small tank, and manually operated manipulator is used to _______________. (A) set the proper water path (B) set the proper transducer angle (C) set the proper index function (D) complete both A and B (D) complete both A and B
In straight (normal) beam contact testing, a reduction in the back surface reflection amplitude could indicate _______________. (A) inadequate coupling (b) a flaw which is not normal to the beam (C) a near surface defect that cannot be resolved from the main bang (initial pulse) (D) all of the above (D) All of the above
In an automatic scanning immersion unit, the bridge or Carriage serves to ______________________. (A) support the manipulator & scanner tube & to move it about transversely & longitudinally (B) control the angular & transverse positioning of the scanner tube (C) control the vertical & angular positioning of the scanner tube (A) support the manipulator & scanner tube & to move it about transfersely & longitudinally
When adjusting the flaw locating rule for a Shear wave weld inspection, the zero point on the rule must coincide with the ________________. (A) sound beam exit point of the wedge (B) point directly over the flaw (C) wheel transducer (D) circular scanner (A) sound beam exit point of the wedge
A special scanning device with the transducer mounted in a tire like container filled with couplant is commonly called __________. (A) a rotating scanner (B) an axial scanner (C) a wheel transducer (D) a circular scanner (C) a wheel transducer
Which best describes a typical display of a crack whose major surface is perpendicular to the ultrasonic beam? (A) a broad indication (B) A sharp indication (C) the indication will not show due to improper orientation (D) a broad indication with high amplitude (B) a sharp indication
Compensation for the variation in Echo height related to variations in discontinuity depth in the material is known as _____________. (A) transfer (B) Attenuation (C) distance amplitude correction (DAC) (D) interpretation (C) distance amplitude correction (DAC)
Which of the following is a reference reflector that is not dependent on beam angle? (A) a flat bottom hole (B) a vee notch (C) a side drilled hole which is parallel to the plate surface & perpendicular to the sound path (D) a disk-shaped laminar reflector (C) a side drooled hole which is parallel to the plate surface & perpendicular to the sound path
During a straight beam ultrasonic test, a discontinuity indication is detected that is small in amplitude compared to the loss in amplitude of back reflection. The orientation of this discontinuity is probably _____________. (A) parallel to the test surface (B) perpendicular to the sound beam (C) parallel to the sound beam (D) at an angle to the test surface (D) at an angle to the test surface
A discontinuity is located having an orientation such that its long axis is parallel to the sound beam. The indication from such a discontinuity will be ____________. (A) large in proportion to the length of the discontinuity (B) small in proportion to the length of the discontinuity (C) representative of the length of the discontinuity (D) such that complete loss of back reflection will result (B) small in proportion to the length of the discontinuity
Gas discontinuities are reduced to flat discs or other shapes parallel to the surface by _____________. (A) rolling (B) machining (C) casting (D) welding (A) rolling
In which zone does the amplitude of an indication from a given discontinuity diminish expotentially as the distance increases? (A) The far field zone (B) the near field zone (C) the dead zone (D) the Fresnel zone (A) The far field zone
A smooth flat discontinuity is major plane is not perpendicular to the direction of sound propagation may be indicated by ______________. (A) an echo amplitude comparable in magnitude to the back surface reflection (B) a complete loss of that surface reflection (C) an Echo amplitude larger in magnitude than the back surface reflection (D) all of the above (D) All of the above
Using a pulse echo technique, if the major plane of a flat discontinuity is oriented at some angle other than perpendicular to the direction of sound propagation the result may be ____________. (A) loss of signal linearity (B) loss or lack of a received discontinuity Echo (C) focusing of the sound beam (D) loss of interference phenomena (B) loss or lack of a received discontinuity echo
As transducer diameter decreases, the bean spread _____________. (A) Decreases (B) Remains the same (C) increases (D) becomes conical in shape (C) increases
A set of standard reference blocks with the same geometrical configuration and dimensions other than the size of the calibration reflectors, e.g., flat bottom holes, is called a set of ___________. (A) distance amplitude standards (B) area amplitude standards (C) variable frequency blocks (D) Beam spread measuring blocks (B) area amplitude standards
The angle at which 90° refraction of a longitudinal sound wave is reached is called _____________. (A) The angle of incidence (B) The first critical angle (C) the angle of maximum reflection (D) the second critical angle (B) The first critical angle
The control of voltage supplied to the vertical deflection plates of the instrument display in an A-scan UT setup is performed by the _________. (A) sweep generator (B) pulser (C) amplifier circuit (D) second critical angle (C) amplifier circuit
Attenuation is a difficult quality to measure accurately, particularly in solid materials, at the test frequencies normally used. The overall result usually observed includes other loss mechanisms which can include ________. (A) beam spread (B) couplant mismatch (C) test piece geometry (D) All of the above (D) All of the above
The vertical linear range of a test instrument may be determined by obtaining ultrasonic responses from __________. (A) a set of distance amplitude reference blocks (B) steel balls located at several different water path distances (C) a set of area amplitude reference blocks (D) all of the above (C) a set of area amplitude reference blocks
Large grains in a metallic test specimen usually result in ___________. (A) a decreased or loss of back surface reflection (B) large "hash" or noise indications (C) the decrease in penetration (D) all of the above (D) All of the above
The total energy loss occurring in all materials is called ___________. (A) attenuation (B) scatter (C) beam spread (D) interface (A) attenuation
Delay-tip (stand-off) type contact transducers are primary used for _________. (A) defect detection (B) Sound wave characterization (C) thickness measurement or flaw detection in thin materials (D) attenuation measurements (C) thickness measurement or flaw detection in thin materials
Acoustical lenses are commonly used for Contour correction. When scanning the inside of a pipe section by the immersion method, use a __________. (A) focused cup lens (B) convex lens (C) concave lens (D) variable-pitch lens (B) convex lens
When the incident angle is chosen to be between the first and second critical angles, the ultrasonic wave generated within the part will be ___________. (A) longitudinal (B) shear (C) surface (D) lamb (B) shear
The angle at which 90° refraction of the shear wave mode occurs is called the __________. (A) first critical angle (B) second critical angle (C) third critical angle (D) angle of reflection (B) second critical angle
For aluminum and steel, the longitudinal velocity is approximately ________ the shear velocity. (A) equal to (B) twice (C) half of (D) four times (B) twice
Water travel distance for immersion inspection should be ___________. (A) such that the second front reflection does not appear between the first front and back Reflections (B) exactly 76 mm (3 in) (C) less than 76 mm (3 in) (D) always equal to the thickness of the material being inspected (A) such that the second front reflection does not appear between the first front and back reflections
The electronic circuitry that allows selection and processing of only those signals relating to discontinuities that occur in specific zones of a part is called ___________. (A) an electronic gate (B) an electronic attenuator (C) a distance amplitude correction circuit (D) a fixed marker (A) an electronic gate
When conducting a contact ultrasonic test, the "hash" or irregular signals that appear in the CRT display of the area being inspected it could be caused by ____________. (A) fine grains in the structure (B) dirt in the water couplant (C) course grains in the structure (D) a thick but tapered back surface (C) coarse grains in the structure
In inspecting a 102mm (4in) diameter threaded steel cylinder for radial cracks extending from the root of the threads, it would be preferable to transmit ___________. (A)Shear waves at an angle to the threads (B)Longitudinal waves from the end of the cylinder & perpendicular to the direction of the thread roots (C)surface waves perpendicular to the thread roots (D)shear waves around the circumstances of the cylinder (B) Longitudinal waves from the end of the cylinder & perpendicular to the direction of the thread roots
In an immersion inspection of raw material, the water travel distance should be ___________. (A) exactly 76mm (3in) (B) equal to 76mm (3in) +/- 13mm (+/-0.5in) (C) equal to the water travel distance used in setting up on the reference standards (D) equal to the thickness of the material (C) equal to the water travel distance used in setting up on the reference standards
The angle formed by an ultrasonic wave as it enters a medium of different velocity than the one from which it came and a line drawn perpendicular to the interface between the two media is called the angle of _______? (A) incidence (B) refraction (C) rarefaction (D) reflection (B) refraction
The process of adjusting an instrument or device to a reference standard is referred to as _________. (A) Angulation (B) Scanning (C) Correcting for distance amplitude variation (D) Calibration (D) Calibration
An electron tube in which a beam of elections from the cathode is used to reproduce an image on a display at the end of the tube is refereed to as ________________. (A) an amplifier tube (B) a pulse tube (C) a cathode ray tube (D) a sweep tube (C) a cathode ray tube
A grouping of a number of crystals in one transducer, with all contact surfaces in the same plane, and vibrating in phase with each other to act as a single transducer is called a _________________. (A) focusing crystal (B) crystal mosaic (C) scrubber (D) single plane manipulator (B) crystal mosaic
The angle of reflection is ____________. (A) equal to the angle of incidence (B) dependant on the couplant used (C) dependant on the frequency used (D) equal to the angle of refraction (A) equal to the angle of incidence
The angular position of the reflecting surface of a planar discontinuity with respect to the entry surface is referred to as __________. (A) The angle of incidence (B) The angle of refraction (C) the orientation of the discontinuity (D) None of the above (C) the orientation of the discontinuity
A short burst of alternating electrical energy is called ___________. (A) a continuous wave (B) a peaked DC voltage (C) an ultrasonic wave (D) a pulse (D) a pulse
In ultrasonic testing, the time duration of the transmitted pulse is referred to as ____________. A. The pulse length or pulse width B. The pulse amplitude C. The pulse shape D. None of the above A. The pulse length or pulse width
89. The phenomenon by which a wave strikes a boundary and changes direction of its propagation within the same medium is referred to as_______________. A. Divergence B. Impedance C. Angulation D. Reflection D. Reflection
The change in direction of an ultrasonic beam when it passes from one medium to another whose velocity differs from that of the first medium I called _____________. A. Refraction B. Rarefaction C. Angulation D. Reflection A. Refraction
The coated inside surface of the large end of a cathode ray tube which becomes luminous when struck by an electron beam is called ______________. A. An electron gun B. An electron amplifier C. An ultrasonic instrument display D. An electron counter C. An ultrasonic instrument display
Which of the following modes of vibration exhibits the shortest wavelength at a given frequency and in a given material? A. A longitudinal wave B. A compression wave C. A shear wave D. A surface wave D. A surface wave
In general, which of the following modes of vibration would have the greatest penetrating power in a coarse-grained material if the frequency of the waves is the same? A. Longitudinal waves B. Shear waves C. Transverse waves D. All of the above modes would have the same penetrating power A. Longitudinal waves
A testing technique in which the crystal or transducer is parallel to the test surface and ultrasonic waves enter the material being testing in a direction perpendicular to the test surface is ______________. A. Straight beam testing B. Angle beam testing C. Surface wave testing D. None of the above A. Straight beam testing
The distance from a given point on an ultrasonic wave to the next corresponding point is referred to as ___________. A. Frequency B. Wavelength C. Velocity D. Pulse length B. Wavelength
The speed with which ultrasonic waves travel through a material is known as its ______________. A. Velocity B. Pulse repetition rate C. Pulse recovery rate D. Ultrasonic response A. Velocity
A substance that reduces the surface tension of a liquid is referred to as ____________. A. A couplant B. An ultrasonic dampener C. A wetting agent D. None of the above C. A wetting agent
The ultrasonic transducers most commonly used for discontinuity testing utilize _______________. A. Magnetostriction principles B. Piezoelectric principles C. Mode conversion principles D. None of the above B. Piezoelectric principles
Mechanical and electrical stability, insolubility in liquids, and resistance to aging are three advantages of transducers made of_______________. A. Lithium sulfate B. Barium titanate C. Quartz D. Rochelle salts C. Quartz
The amount of energy reflected from a discontinuity is dependent on ______________. A. The size of the discontinuity B. The orientation of the discontinuity C. The type of discontinuity D. All of the above D. All of the above
If ultrasonic wave is transmitted through an interface of two materials in which the first material has a higher acoustic impedance value but the same velocity value as the second material, the angle of refraction will be _____________. A. Greater than the angle of incidence B. Less than the angle of incidence C. The same as the angle of incidence D. Beyond the critical angle C. The same as the angle of incidence
Which of the following frequencies would probably result in the greatest ultrasonic attenuation losses? A. 1 MHz B. 2025 MHz C. 10 MHz D. 25 MHz D. 25 MHz
The product of the sound velocity and the density of a material is known as the _______________. A. Refraction value of the material B. Acoustic impedance of the material C. Elastic constant of the material D. Poisson’s ratio of the material B. Acoustic impedance of the material
The amplifier range over which the unsaturated signal response increases in amplitude in proportion to the discontinuity surface area is the ____________. A. Sensitivity range B. Vertical linearity range C. Selectivity range D. Horizontal linearity range B. Vertical linearity range
When inspecting a rolled or forged surface with a thin scale that I generally tightly adhering to the part, before testing the part ______________. A. Clean the surface of loose scale B. Have all scale removed C. Rough machine the surface D. Caustic etch the surface A .Clean the surface of loose scale
The angle of reflection of an ultrasonic beam at an aluminum-water interface is ____________. A. 0.256 times the angle of incidence B. Approximately ½ the angle of incidence C. Equal to the angle of incidence D. Approximately 4 times the angle of incidence C. Equal to the angle of incidence
What kind of waves travel at a velocity slightly less than shear waves and their mode of propagation is both longitudinal and transverse with respect to the surface? A. Rayleigh waves B. Transverse waves C. L-waves D. Longitudinal waves A. Rayleigh waves
Which ultrasonic test frequency would probably provide the best penetration in a 30 cm (12 in) thick specimen of coarse-grained steel? A. 1 MHz B. 2.25 MHz C. 5 MHz D. 10 MHz A. 1 MHz
One of the most common applications of ultrasonic tests employing shear waves is for the ___________. A. Detection of discontinuities in welds, tube, and pipe B. Determination of elastic properties of metallic products C. Detection of laminar discontinuities in heavy plate D. Measurement of thickness of thin plate A. Detection of discontinuities in welds, tube, and pipe
Generally, the best ultrasonic testing method for detecting discontinuities oriented along the fusion zone in a welded plate is __________. A. An angle beam contact method using surface waves B. A contact test using a straight longitudinal wave C. An immersion test using surface waves D. An angle beam method using shear waves D. An angle beam method using shear waves
An ultrasonic testing instrument that displays pulses representing the magnitude of reflected ultrasound as a function of time or depth of metal is said to contain ______________. A. A continuous wave display B. An A-scan presentation C. A B-scan presentation D. A C-scan presentation B. An A-scan presentation
At a water-steel interface the angle of incidence in water is 7 degrees. The principal mode of vibration that exists in the steel is ___________. A. Longitudinal B. Shear C. Both A and B D. Surface A .Longitudinal
In a liquid medium, the only mode of vibration that can exist is _____________. A. Longitudinal B. Shear C. Both A and B D. Surface A. Longitudinal
In an ultrasonic instrument, the number of pulses produced by an instrument in a given period of time is known as the ____________. A. Pulse length of the instrument B. Pulse recovery time C. Frequency D. Pulse repetition rate D. Pulse repetition rate
In a basic pulse echo ultrasonic instrument, the component that coordinates the action and timing of other components is called a ________. A. Display unit B. Receiver C. Marker circuit or range marker circuit D. Synchronizer, clock, or timer D. Synchronizer, clock, or timer
In a basic pulse echo ultrasonic instrument, the component that produces the voltage that activates the transducer is called _____________. A. An amplifier B. A receiver C. A pulser D. A synchronizer C. A pulser
In basic pulse echo ultrasonic instrument, the component that produces the time base line is called a _________. A. Sweep circuit B. Receiver C. Pulser D. Synchronizer A. Sweep circuit
In a basic pulse echo ultrasonic instrument, the component that produces visible signals on the CRT which are used to measure distance is called a ________. A. Sweep circuit B. Marker circuit C. Receiver circuit D. Synchronizer B. Marker circuit
Most basic pulse echo ultrasonic instruments use ____________. A. Automatic read-out equipment B. An A-scan presentation C. A B-scan presentation D. A C-scan presentation B. An A-scan presentation
The instrument displays a plan view of the part outline and defects when using _____________. A. Automatic read-out equipment B. An A-scan presentation C. A B-scan presentation D. A C-scan presentation D. A C-scan presentation
The incident angles at which 90 degrees refraction of longitudinal and shear waves occurs are called __________. A. The normal angles of incidence B. The critical angles C. The angles of maximum reflection D. None of the above B. The critical angles
Compression waves whose particle displacement is parallel to the direction of propagation are called _____________. A. Longitudinal waves B. Shear waves C. Lamb waves D. Rayleigh waves A. Longitudinal waves
The mode of vibration that is quickly damped out when testing by the immersion method is ______________. A. Longitudinal waves B. Shear waves C. Transverse waves D. Surface waves D. Surface waves
The motion of particles in a shear wave is ______________. A. Parallel to the direction of propagation of the ultrasonic beam B. Transverse to the direction of the beam propagation C. Limited to the material surface & elliptical in motion D. Polarized in a plane at 45* to the direction of beam propagation B. Transverse to the direction of the beam propagation
An ultrasonic longitudinal wave travels in aluminum with a velocity of 635,000 cm/s and has a frequency of 1 MHz. The wavelength of this ultrasonic wave is ____________. A. 6..35 mm (0.25 in) B. 78 mm (3.1 in) C. 1.9 m (6.35 ft) D. 30,000 A A. 6..35 mm (0.25 in)
The refraction angle of longitudinal ultrasonic waves passing from water into a metallic material at angles other than normal to the interface is primarily a function of _________. A. The impedance ratio (r=ZwZM) of water to metal B. The relative velocities of sound in water and metal C. The frequency of the ultrasonic beam D. The density ratio of water to metal B. The relative velocities of sound in water and metal
As frequency increases in ultrasonic testing, the angle of beam divergence of a given diameter crystal ___________. A. Decreases B. Remains unchanged C. Increases D. Varies uniformly through each wavelength A. Decreases
Which of the following is not an advantage of contact ultrasonic transducers (probes) adapted with Lucite shoes? A. Most of the crystal wear is eliminated B. Adaption to curved surfaces is permitted C. Sensitivity is increased D. Ultrasound is allowed to enter a part’s surface at oblique angles C. Sensitivity is increased
The velocity of sound is the lowest in _____________. A. Air B. Water C. Aluminum D. Plastic A. Air
A longitudinal ultrasonic wave is transmitted from water into steel at an angle of 5 degrees from the normal. In such a case, the refracted angle of the transverse wave is _________. A. Less than the refracted angle of the longitudinal wave B. Equal to the refracted angle of the longitudinal wave C. Greater than the refracted angle of the longitudinal wave D. Not present at all A. Less than the refracted angle of the longitudinal wave
The velocity of longitudinal waves is the highest in ___________. A. Water B. Air C. Aluminum D. Plastic C. Aluminum
In steel, the velocity of sound is greatest in ____________. A. Longitudinal waves B. Shear waves C. Surface waves D. None of the above – sound velocity is identical in all modes, in a give material A. Longitudinal waves
The acoustic impedance ______________. A. Used to calculate the angle of reflection B. The product of the density of the material and the velocity of sound in the material C. Found by Snell’s law D. Used to determine resonance values B. The product of the density of the material and the velocity of sound in the material
Thin sheet may be inspected with the ultrasonic wave directed normal to the surface by observing ____________. A. The amplitude of the front surface reflection B. The multiple reflection pattern C. All front surface reflections D. None of the above B The multiple reflection pattern
A diagram in which the entire circuit stage or sections are shown by geometric figures and the path of the signal or energy by lines and/or arrows is called a _______. A. Schematic diagram B. Blueprint C. Block diagram D. None of the above C. Block diagram
A hole produced during the solidification of metal due to escaping gases is called ____________. A. A burst B. A cold shut C. Flaking D. A blow hole D. A blow hole
A discontinuity that occurs during the casting of molten metal which may be caused by the splashing, surging, interrupted pouring, or the meeting of two streams of metal coming from different directions is called _______. A. A burst B. A cold shut C. Flaking D. A blow hole B. A cold shut
The ratio between the wave speed in one material and the wave speed in a second material is called ________. A. The acoustic impedance of the interface B. Young’s modulus C. Poisson’s ratio D. The index of refraction D. The index of refraction
The expansion and contraction of a magnetic material under the influence of a changing magnetic field is referred to as __________. A. Piezoelectricity B. Refraction C. Magnetostriction D. Rarefaction C. Magnetostriction
The ratio of stress to strain in a material with the elastic limit is called ________. A. Young’s modulus B. The modulus of elasticity C. Both A and B D. The index of refraction C. Both A and B
A point, line, or surface of a vibrating body marked by absolute or relative freedom from vibratory motion is referred to as __________. A. A node B. An antinode C. Rarefaction D. Compression A. A node
The factor that determines the amount of reflection at the interface of two dissimilar materials is _________. A. The index of rarefaction B. The frequency of the ultrasonic wave C. Young’s modulus D. The acoustic impedance D. The acoustic impedance
A quartz crystal cut so that its major faces are parallel to the Z and Y axes and perpendicular to the X axis is called _________. A. A Y-cut crystal B. An X-cut crystal C. A Z-cut crystal D. A ZY-cut crystal B. An X-cut crystal
The equation describing wavelength in terms of velocity and frequency is _________. A. Wavelength = velocity X frequency B. Wavelength = Z (frequency X velocity) C. Wavelength = velocity ÷ frequency D. Wavelength = frequency ÷ velocity C. Wavelength = velocity ÷ frequency
When an ultrasonic beam reaches the interface of two dissimilar materials it is _____________. A. Reflected B. Refracted C. Mode converted D. All of the above D. All of the above
Of the piezoelectric materials listed below, the most efficient sound transmitter is ___________. A. Lithium sulfate B. Quartz C. Barium titanate D. Silver oxide C. Barium titanate
Of the piezoelectric materials listed below, the most efficient sound receiver is A. Lithium sulfate B. Quartz C. Barium titanate D. Silver oxide A. Lithium sulfate
The most common used method of producing shear waves in a test part when inspecting by the immersion method is ______. A. By transmitting longitudinal wave into a part in a direction perpendicular to its front surface B. By using two crystals vibrating at different frequencies C. By using a Y-cut quartz crystal D. By angulating the search tube to the proper angle D. By angulating the search tube to the proper angle
The wavelength of an ultrasonic wave is _____________. A. Directly proportional to velocity & frequency B. Directly proportional to velocity & inversely proportional to frequency C. Inversely proportional to velocity and directly proportional to frequency D. Equal to the product of velocity and frequency B. Directly proportional to velocity & inversely proportional to frequency
The fundamental frequency of a piezoelectric crystal is primarily a function of ____________. A. The length of the applied voltage pulse B. The amplifying characteristics of the pulse amplifier in the instrument C. The thickness of the crystal D. None of the above C. The thickness of the crystal
Acoustic velocities of materials are primarily due to the material’s _________________. A. Density B. Elasticity C. Both A and B D. Acoustic impedance C. Both A and B
Inspection of castings is often impractical because of ________________. A. Extremely small grain structure B. Coarse grain structure C. Uniform flow lines D. Uniform velocity of sound B. Coarse grain structure
Lamb waves may be used to inspect ___________________. A. Forgings B. Bar stock C. Ingots D. Thin sheet D. Thin sheet
The formula used to determine the angle of beam divergence of a quartz crystal is _______________. A. Sin Θ = diameter ½ X wavelength B. Sin Θ diameter = frequency X wavelength C. Sin Θ = frequency X wavelength D. Sin Θ/2 = 1.22 X wavelength/diameter D. Sin Θ/2 = 1.22 X wavelength/diameter
The resolving power of a transducer is directly proportional to __________. A. Diameter B. Bandwidth C. Pulse repetition D. None of the above B. Bandwidth
Acoustic lens elements with which of the following permit focusing the sound energy to enter cylindrical surfaces normally or along a line focus? A. Cylindrical curvatures B. Spherical lens curvatures C. Convex shapes D. Concave shapes A. Cylindrical curvatures
In the basic pulse echo instrument, the synchronizer, clock, or timer circuit determines the A. Pulse length B. Gain C. Pulse repetition rate D. Sweep length C. Pulse repetition rate
Heat conduction, viscous friction, elastic hysteresis, and scattering are four different mechanisms which lead to ______. A. Attenuation B. Refraction C. Beam spreading D. Saturation A. Attenuation
Because the velocity of sound in aluminum is approximately 245,000 in/s for sound to travel through 25 mm (1 in) of aluminum, it takes _________. A. 1/8 s B. 4 µs C. 4 ms D. ¼ X 104 s B. 4 µs
Reflection indications from a weld area being inspected by the angle beam technique may represent __________. A. Porosity B. Cracks C. Weld bead D. All of the above D. All of the above
In an A-scan presentation, the horizontal line formed by the uniform and repeated movement of an electron beam across the fluorescent screen of a cathode ray tube is called _________. A. A square wave pattern B. A sweep line C. A marker pattern D. None of the above B. A sweep line
The greatest amount of attenuation losses take place __________. A. 1 MHz B. 2.25 MHz C. 5 MHz D. 10 MHz D. 10 MHz
Waves that travel around gradual curves with little or no reflection from the curve are called _________. A. Transverse waves B. Surface waves C. Shear waves D. Longitudinal waves B. Surface waves
To evaluate and accurately locate discontinuities after scanning a part with a paintbrush transducer, it is generally necessary to use a ________. A. Transducer with a smaller crystal B. Scrubber C. Grid map D. Crystal collimator A. Transducer with a smaller crystal
As the impedance ratio of two dissimilar materials increases, the percentage of sound coupled through an interface of such materials _________. A. Decreases B. 2.25 MHz C. 5 MHz D. 10 MHz A. Decreases
Waves that travel around gradual curves with little or no reflection from the curve are called ___________-. A. Transverse waves B. Surface waves C. Shear waves D. Longitudinal waves B. Surface waves
To evaluate and accurately locate discontinuities after scanning a part with a paintbrush transducer, it is generally necessary to use a __________. A. Transducer with a smaller crystal B. Scrubber C. Grid map D. Crystal collimator A. Transducer with a smaller crystal
As the impedance ratio of two dissimilar materials increases, the percentage of sound coupled through an interface of such materials ____________. A. Decreases B. Increases C. Is not changed D. May increase or decrease A. Decreases
Low frequency sound waves are not generally used to test thin materials because of _________-. A. The rapid attenuation of low frequency sound B. Incompatible wavelengths C. Poor near-surface resolution D. None of the above will actually limit such a test C. Poor near-surface resolution
When using tow separate transducers (one a transmitter, the other a receiver), the most efficient combinations would be a ____________. A. Quartz transmitter and a barium titanate receiver B. Barium titanate transmitter and a lithium sulfate receiver C. Lithium sulfate transmitter and a barium titanate receiver D. Barium titanate transmitter and a quartz receiver B. Barium titanate transmitter and a lithium sulfate receiver
In immersion testing, the accessory equipment to which the search cable and the transducer are attached is called a ________. A. Crystal collimator B. Scrubber C. Jet-stream unit D. Search tube or scanning tube D. Search tube or scanning tube
In general, discontinuities in wrought products tend to b oriented _________. A. Randomly B. In the direction of grain flow C. At right angles to the entry surface D. At right angles to the grain flow B. In the direction of grain flow
In immersion testing, irrelevant or false indications caused by contoured surfaces are likely to result in a ________. A. Broad-based indication B. Peaked indication C. “hashy” signal D. Narrow-based indication A. Broad-based indication
In contact testing, defects near the entry surface cannot always be detected because of ________. A. The far-field effect B. Attenuation C. The dead zone D. Refraction C. The dead zone
In cases where the diameter of tubing being inspected is smaller than the diameter of the transducer, what can be used to confine the sound beam to the proper range of angles? A. A scrubber B. A collimator C. An angle plane angulator D. A jet-stream unit B. A collimator
The maximum scanning speed possible is primarily determined by _______. A. The frequency of the transducer B. Viscous drag problems C. The pulse repetition rate of the test instrument D. The persistency of the ultrasonic instrument display C. The pulse repetition rate of the test instrument
The property of certain materials to transform electrical energy to mechanical energy and vice versa is called ___________. A. Mode conversion B. Piezoelectric effect C. Refraction D. Impedance matching B. Piezoelectric effect
Surface waves are reduced to an energy level of approximately 1/25 of the original power at a depth of __________. A. 25 mm (1 in) B. 102 mm (4 in) C. 1 wavelength D. Impedance matching C. 1 wavelength
Increasing the length of the pulse and used to activate the transducer will ___________. A. Increase the strength of the ultrasound but decrease the resolving power of the instrument B. Increase the resolving power of the instrument C. Have no effect on the test D. Decrease the penetration of the sound wave A. Increase the strength of the ultrasound but decrease the resolving power of the instrument
A discontinuity with a concave surface will ___________. A. Diffuse the sound energy throughout the part B. Cause the reflected beam to focus at a point determined by the curvature of the discontinuity C. Cause mode reinforcement of the ultrasonic wave D. Cause none of the above B.. Cause the reflected beam to focus at a point determined by the curvature of the discontinuity
Rayleigh waves __________. A. Are generated at the first critical angle B. Are generated at the second critical angle C. Are generated at either critical angle D. Travel only in liquid E. Are another name for Lamb waves B. Are generated at the second critical angle
Angle beam testing of plate will often miss __________. A. Cracks that are perpendicular to the sound wave B. Inclusions that are randomly oriented C. Lamination's that are parallel to the front surface D. A series of small discontinuities C. Lamination's that are parallel to the front surface
In plate, skip distance can be calculated from which of the following formulas where (t = plate thickness, Θ = angle of sound beam refraction, and V = sound velocity) ____________. A. S = (2 X t)/ tan Θ B. S = 2 X t X sin Θ C. S = 2 X t X tan Θ D. S = 2 X V X sin Θ E. None of the above C. S = 2 X t X tan Θ
The technique of examining an ultrasonic reflector from different directions might be used to enable the technician to __________. A. Distinguish between different types of flaws B. Predict the useful service life of the test specimen C. Distinguish between flaw indications and spurious or flat indications D. All of the above E. None of the above A. Distinguish between different types of flaws
The principal application of ultrasonic techniques consists of ________-. A. Flaw detection B. Thickness measurements C. Determination of elastic moduli D. All of the above E. None of the above D. All of the above
Attenuation is the loss of the ultrasonic wave energy during the course of propagation in the material due to __________. A. Reflection and refraction B. Dispersion and diffraction C. Absorption and scattering D. Composition and shape E. All of the above C. Absorption and scattering
In immersion shear wave testing, waves are normally generated by angulating the transducer beyond the first critical angle. What is the direction of the material’s particle motion? A. The same as the wave propagation B. Normal to the material surface C. Parallel to the direction of wave propagation D. Perpendicular to the direction f wave propagation E. Only surface waves existed beyond the first critical angle D. Perpendicular to the direction f wave propagation
Which of the following modes of vibration are quickly dampened out when testing by the immersion method? A. Longitudinal waves B. Shear waves C. Transverse waves D. Surface waves D. Surface waves
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