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psych exam 4

Cognition The mental activities involved in acquiring, retaining and using knowledge
Thinking The manipulation of mental representations of information in order to draw inferences and conclusions
Heuristics A problem-solving strategy that involves following a general rule of thumb to reduce the number of possible solutions
Availability Heuristics A strategy in which the likelihood of an event is estimated on the basis of how readily available instances of this event are in the memory Ex: greatest risk for a shark attack? 20 yards of shore or while swimming in the middle of the ocean?
Representative Heuristics A strategy in which the likelihood of an event is estimated by comparing how similar it is to the prototype. Ex: If you see short, man with glasses, and likes poetry, what do you think his profession would be? An Ivy league professor or a truck driver?
Algorithm A problem-solving strategy that involves following a specific rule, procedure or method that inevitably produces the correct solution.
Insight A sudden, novel realization of how a problem can be solved. Humans and animals have insight. The “Aha” experience activates the right temporal cortex The time between not knowing the solution and realizing it is about 0.3 seconds.
Concepts A mental category of objects or ideas based on properties they share. We form some concepts with definitions. For example, a triangle has three sides = formal concept. We form most concepts with mental imagery = natural concept.
Functional Fixedness cognitive bias that limits a person to using an object only in the way it is traditionally used.
Mental Set A tendency to only see solutions that have worked in the past
Prototype The mental imagery that comes to mind for most people when a concept is mentioned. Penguins are NOT prototypical birds (Note on cultural considerations for prototypes: In America, he prototypical fruit is an apple or orange, not a starfruit or kiwi
Confirmation Bias A tendency to search for information that confirms a personal bias For example: Republicans only watch FOX while liberals only watch MSNBC
Linguistic Relativity Hypothesis The hypothesis that differences among language cause differences in the thoughts of their speakers. For example, the Hopi people do not have the past tense for verbs. Therefore, the Hopi cannot think readily about the past.
Syntax Rules by which words are strung together to form sentences
Intelligence The global capacity to think rationally, act purposefully, and deal effectively with the environment
IQ Lewis Terman developed the Stanford-Binet Test, reflecting the belief that intelligence centers on a baseline mental ability. A single intelligence score is generated by this test The formula is (mental age/chronological age*100)
G Factor the notion of a general intelligence factor that is responsible for a person’s overall performance on tests of mental ability. proposed by Charles Spearman
Aptitude Test are designed to measure an individual's potential to perform well on a specific range of tasks
Achievement Test measure knowledge and thinking skills that an individual has acquired
fixation An inability to see a problem from a fresh perspective. This impedes problem solving. An example of fixation is functional fixedness
Flynn Effect In the past 60 years, intelligence scores have risen steadily by an average of 27 points.
summary of language devolpmennt month 4: babbles many speech sounds month 10: babbling resembles household language month 12: one word stage month 24: 2 word telegraphic speech month 24+: language develope rapidly into complete sentences
Created by: Virajasaur