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Adv Imaging Unit 4

Overview

QuestionAnswer
cancer common in ppl older than 55 men - prostate, lung, colorectal women - breast, lung, colorectal
Nucmed physical principles (part1) radiopharmaceutical agents have 2 components: radionuclide & pharmaceutical Pharmaceutical based on its role in organ's physiologic function Radionuclide is tagged to a pharmaceutical
Nucmed physical principles (part2) radiopharmaceutical is administered to the patient the target organ is localized and the radiation emitted from it can be detected by imaging instruments, or gamma cameras Technetium-99 (99mTc) —the most commonly used radionuclide in NM
Preferred Radiopharmaceutical Characteristics part1 easily produced, readily available, low cost, low radiation dose, primary photon btwn 100-400 keV, half life greater than injection preparation time, effective half life longer than exam time, rapid localization, diff uptake in structure to be detected
Preferred Radiopharmaceutical Characteristics part2 low toxicity, stability or near stability
Nucmed radiation safety radionuclides continuously emit radiation after administration Preparation area in nuclear pharmacy contains, Isolated ventilation. Protective lead or glass shielding for vials &syringes. Gloves &lead syringe shield required to reduce exposure to hands
crystal and light pipe light pipe- disk of optically transparent material, helps direct photons from the crystal into the PMTs (may be used to attach crystals to PMTs)
detector electronics part1 PMTs detect and convert light from crystal into electronic signal and amplify signal 10^7 , PMT array attached to back of crystal or light pipe, typical gamma camera detector head contains 80 to 100 PMTs
detector electronics part2 PMTs processing steps -location (x,y) of original photon and amplitude/energy (z) , pulse height analyzer eliminates z signals , reduce scattered lower energy (noise) , processed data are transmitted to the display system
gamma cameras originally single detector head systems newer may have up to 3 heads multicrytsal gamma cameras- utilize an array of crystals that are coupled to position sensitive PMTs or photodiodes
PET principles PET is a multidisciplinary technique with four processes: Radionuclide production Radiopharmaceutical production Data acquisition (PET scanner or tomograph) Combination of image reconstruction and image processing to create images that depict tissue function
Clinical PET Oncology imaging Neurologic imaging Cardiology imaging
Future of NucMed Radioimmunotherapy Hybrid imaging
Radiation Oncology theory part1 biologic effectiveness of ionizing radiation in living tissue depends partially on the amount of energy that is deposited within tissue and partially on the condition of the bio system
LET and RBE energy effect is described as linear energy transfer (LET) and relative biologic effectiveness (RBE) LET increase = RBE increase
Radiation Oncology theory part2 State of the biologic system is based on Law of Bergonié and Tribondeau Radiosensitivity of tissue depends on Cell differentiation Mitotic rate Length of time in mitosis
Radiation Oncology theory part3 1. led to tumor radiosensitivity rating - very radiosensitive, moderately radiosensitive, &relatively radioresistant 2. very radiosensitive - gonadal germ cell tumors, lymphomas, embryonal tumors
Radiation Oncology Clinical Applications Lung cancer Prostate cancer Head and neck cancers Cervical cancer Hodgkin’s lymphoma Breast cancer Laryngeal cancer Skin cancer Medulloblastoma
Future Trends in Radiation Oncology part1 Intensity-modulated radiation therapy expansion Newest is volumetric-modulated arc therapy (VMAT)
Future Trends in Radiation Oncology part2 Image-guided radiation therapy expansion Proton beam therapy, Not new, but gaining popularity as a result of normal-tissue savings, Cost and space constraints are still issues
Created by: Kgossio