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Adv Imaging Unit 4

NucMed & Pet

Nuclear medicine Medical specialty that focuses on use of radioactive materials (radiopharmaceuticals / tracers) for: diagnosis, therapy, and medical research
Tracers Substances attracted to specific organs, bones or tissues. When introduced into the body, they produce emissions. Special type of camera (gamma camera) used to transform these emissions into images.
Nuclear Pharmaceuticals Radionuclides used in nuclear medicine are produced in reactors, or particle accelerators. Most common nuclear medicine radionuclide used: Technetium – 99 m
Half Life length of time it takes for original number of atoms to disintegrate or decay to one half its original number.
radioactivity atoms of a given element with an excess of nuclear mass or energy are unstable and lose their excess mass through the process of radioactive decay (energy losses of the orbital electrons).
radionuclide - half life - diagnostic use Iodine 123 - 13.3 hrs - thyroid function; Technetium 99m - 6 hrs - brain & kidneys
gamma cameras Scintillation detectors that use thallium- activated sodium iodide crystals to detect and transform radioactive emissions into light photons. These are electronically recorded to produce an image
1. Static "snapshot" 2. Dynamic Imaging 1. single image of a structure (red image) 2. Looks at ‘flow’ study to evaluate blood perfusion to tissue. (black and white image)
Radiation Safety in nuclear medicine Protection is different than in radiology Radionuclides are in liquid/solid/gaseous forms quantities of radioactive tracers present no significant hazard. Isolated ventilation, protective lead shielding for vials&syringes are necessary, required to wear monitors for whole body and fingers.
TLD thermoluminescent dosimeter
Positron Emission Tomography (PET) (part1) Measures human cellular, organ or system functions Positron emissions from radionuclides produces detailed functional images within the body.
Positron Emission Tomography (PET) (part2) Isotopes (C11, N13, O15, F18) are injected with glucose solutions to travel to various locations (organs of interest). When these isotopes decay, they emit positrons that will collide with electrons, producing Gamma-ray photons.
Positron Emission Tomography (PET) (part3) During nuclear reaction, 2 Gamma-rays result & are paired to move away from nuclide opposite directions. Gamma-ray photons are sensed simultaneously by detectors located 180° apart double set of radiation photons improves detectability &resolution.
radionuclides produced in cyclotrons, short half life 1.Fluorine-18: for glucose metabolism in the brain(tumors have slow-high rate of uptake) 2. Radioactive water: for local cerebral blood flow3. Fluoride ions (FDG): glucose utilization in the brain, heart, tumors or other tissues.
most PET scans use what kind of solutions sugar solutions
Created by: Kgossio