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Central Rays with degrees of angles, obliqueness

Toes (Lateral) Perpendicular, entering IP joint of big toe
Foot (AP Axial) 10 degrees toward heel, entering base of third metatarsal
Calcaneus (Lateral) Perpendicular to calcaneus. Center 1" distal to medial malleolus.
Calcaneus (Axial) Plantodorsal 40 degrees cephalic to base of 3rd metatarsal
Ankle (AP Oblique) Medial Rotation Perpendicular entering ankle joint midway between malleoli
Ankle (Lateral) Lateromedial Perpendicular through ankle joint, entering 1/2" superior to lateral malleolus
Sesamoids (Tangential) Perpendicular and tangential to 1st metatarsal joint
Knee (AP) Weight-Bearing Horizontal and perpendicular, entering 1/2" below patella apex
Knee (Lateral) Mediolateral To knee joint 1" distal to medial epicondyle at angle of 5 - 7 degrees cephalic
Patella (Lateral) Mediolateral Perpendicular, entering knee at midpatellofemoral joint
Patella (Tangential) Merchant Method Perpendicular with 40 degree knee flex. Angle CR 30 degrees caudal.
Patella (PA) Perpendicular to midpopliteal, exiting patella
Patella and Patellofemoral Joint (Tangential) Settegast Method Perpendicular to perpendicular joint. If not, CR angle will be 15 - 20 degrees
Patella and Patellofemoral Joint (Tangential) Hughston Method Angled 45 degrees cephalic and directed through patellofemoral joint
Intercondylar Fossa (PA Axial) Camp-Coventry Perpendicular and centered to knee joint. Angled 40 degrees when knee flexed 40 degrees or angled 50 degrees when knee is 50 degrees
Hip (AP) Line up at ASIS. Go distal 2" and center between ASIS and pubic symphysis.
Hip (Modified Axiolateral) Clements - Nakayama Directed 15 degrees posteriorly and aligned perpendicular to femoral neck
Hip (Axiolateral) Danelius-Miller Perpendicular to long axis of femoral neck.
Hip (Lateral) Mediolateral (Lauenstein) Perpendicular through hip joint. Lauenstein: midway bet. ASIS and Pubic symphysis
Hip (Lateral) Mediolateral (Hickey) Perpendicular through hip joint. Hickey: Cephalic angle is 20 - 25 degrees
Acetabulum (AP Oblique) Judet Method Perpendicular, entering pubic symphysis
Anterior Pelvic Bones (AP Axial) Outlet - Taylor Method Male: Directed 20 - 35 degrees cephalic and centered to a point 2" distal to superior border of pubic symphysis.
Anterior Pelvic Bones (AP Axial) Outlet - Taylor Method Female: Directed 30 - 45 degrees cephalic and centered to point 2" distal to upper border of pubic symphysis.
Anterior Pelvic Bones (Superoinferior Axial) Inlet - Bridgeman Method Directed 40 degrees caudal, entering at level of ASIS
SI Joints (AP Oblique) Perpendicular, entering 1" medial to elevated ASIS
SI Joints (PA Oblique) (RAO/LAO) Perpendicular, 1" medial to ASIS
Pelvis (Lateral) Perpendicular to a point at the level just above greater trochanter
Femoral Necks (AP Oblique) Modified Cleaves Perpendicular, entering at level 1" superior to pubic symphysis
Femoral Necks (AP) Modified Cleaves Directly to femoral neck
Created by: rad1958tech