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X-Ray **Studies

Specifics on radiological studies, i.e., cystography, arthrography, etc.

QuestionAnswer
What is an ERCP used to diagnose? Biliary and pancreatic pathology
How is an ERCP performed? Fiberoptic endoscope passed thru mouth into duodenum.
Where is contrast injected for an ERCP? Common bile duct or pancreatic duct
IVU: Where is the CR placed for the AP Bladder position? Perpendicular at level of iliac crest
What is the purpose of intravenous urography studies? To demonstrate structure and function of urinary system.
IVU: Where does contrast begin to appear? 2 - 8 minutes
What is intravenous urography used to diagnose? Blunt or penetrating trauma affecting the kidneys
IVU: When ureteric compression is used, where is it applied? Distal ends of ureters, centered at ASIS level.
IVU: When is compression contraindicated? Urinary stones, ab mass, aneurysm, colostomy present
IVU: Can patients eat the night before this exam? NPO after midnight on day of exam.
What is nephrotomography? Tomography used during IVP to blur gas patterns.
What does nephrotomography diagnose? Kidney stones, renal hypertension, renal cysts, tumors
What are some contraindications for nephrotomography? Renal failure; contrast media sensitivity
IVU: For an oblique, where is the CR placed? Perpendicular at level of iliac crests, entering 2" lateral to midline on elevated side.
IVU: For an oblique, how many degrees is the patient turned? 30 degrees
IVU: For an oblique, what position will the kidney closer to the IR be in? Perpendicular
What is cystography? Study of the bladder with contrast
What is a cystography used to diagnose? Injury to the bladder, if pelvis is fractured
During cystography, how is contrast injected? Urethral catheter with retrograde technique
Cystography: For an AP, where is CR placed? 5 degrees caudal to level 2 - 3" above symphysis pubis
Cystography: For an AP Axial, where is CR placed? 10 - 15 degrees caudal 2" above upper border of pubic symphysis.
Cystography: For a lateral, where is CR placed? Perpendicular, 2" above upper border of pubic symphysis
Cystography: For an AP oblique (RPO/LPO), where is CR placed? Perpendicular, 2" above upper border of pubic symphysis and 2" medial to upper ASIS
Cystography: For an AP oblique (RPO/LPO),how many degrees is the patient rotated? 40 - 60 degrees
Voiding Cystourethrography (Female): Where is CR placed? 5 degrees caudal
Voiding Cystourethrography (Female): How is contrast injected? Syringe fitted with blunt-nosed, soft rubber acorn is inserted into urethral orifice.
Voiding Cystourethrography (Male): Where is CR placed? Superior border of pubic symphysis
Voiding Cystourethrography (Male): For the AP Oblique, how many degrees is the patient turned? 35 - 40 degrees
Voiding Cystourethrography (Male): How is contrast injected? Catheter is inserted through urethra.
Retrograde Pyelography: What positions are used? AP (KUB), RPO, LPO
What is retrograde pyelography? Contrast study to demonstrate inside of ureter and pelvis
What are indications for retrograde pyelography? Ureteric stones and injuries, renal pelvis neoplasms, calculi
What are contraindications for retrograde pyelography? Urethritis, stricture urethra
Retrograde Pyelography: How is contrast fluid injected? Ureteric catheter is inserted into bladder. 20 - 30 ml of radioopaque contrast is injected.
What is cholangiography? Radiographic study of the bile ducts with radiopaque contrast.
What is the purpose of surgical cholangiography? Jaundice, patency of bile ducts, presence of calculi
Surgical cholangiography: Where is CR placement for an AP or AP Oblique? Perpendicular to exposed biliary tract
Surgical cholangiography: How many degrees is the patient obliqued for an AP Oblique? 15 - 20 degrees
Surgical cholangiography: What are breathing instructions for this exam? Breathing is controlled by anestetist
Surgical cholangiography: What type of needle is used for this exam? Chiba (skinny) needle
Surgical cholangiography: Another name for this. PTC (Percutaneous Transhepatic Cholangiography)
What is Myelography? Radiologic study of the CNS situated within the vertebral canal with contrast into spinal subarachnoid space
What is a myelography used to diagnose? Herniated intervertebral disks, degenerative diseases of CNS, lesions, bone fragments
Myelography: How is contrast injected? Lumbar puncture at L2-L3 or L3-L4 by doctor.
Myelography: What type of contrast is used? Nonionic, water-soluble
What is Arthrography? Contrast study of joint and its surrounding structures.
What is Arthography used to diagnose? Joint trauma, meniscal tears, arthritic deformities
Arthography: What type of contrast agent is used? Negative, positive or both
Arthography: What is the most common view for this study? Lateral knee with 90 degree flexion
What is Venography? Contrast study of the veins.
What is venography used to diagnose? Embolisms, thrombosis, varicose veins, vessel damage
Upper Extremity Venogram: Where is contrast injected? Superficial vein at elbow or wrist
Upper Extremity Venogram: What projection is used for this study? AP showing site of injection to superior vena cava
Upper Extremity Venogram: Used to diagnose what condition? Thrombosis
Lower Extremity Venogram: Used to diagnose what condition? Thrombosis in legs
Lower Extremity Venogram: Where is contrast injected? Superficial vein of foot
Lower Extremity Venogram: What projection is used for this study? AP with 30 degree internal rotation
What is Enteroclysis? Radiographic procedure where contrast is injected into duodenum under fluoroscopic control for exam of small intestine.
Enteroclysis: What type of tube is used for injection? Bilbao or Sellink tube
Enteroclysis: Can enemas be used to cleanse the patient's colon? No
Enteroclysis: How far into the intestine is the catheter inserted? To the end of the duodenum, near the ligament of Treitz.
Created by: rad1958tech