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Areas of Practice

Lesson 7 Transportation

TermDefinition
Origin-Destination Survey Review of travel information used to determine future traffic patterns
Cross Tabulation Models Groups variables to understand the correlation between different variables Allows for estimates of trip generation rates based on land use type, purpose or socioeconomic characteristics
Trip End Refers to the origin or destination point of a journey
Trip Distribution Examines where people are going
Gravity Model Provides trip estimates based directly on the proportional attractiveness of the zone and inversely proportional to the trip length
Model Split Deals with how people get to where they want to go, and the form of transportation that they use
Average Annual Daily Traffic (AADT) Amount of traffic on a roadway in a 24 hour period, average over a year
Peak Hour Volume Equals the hourly traffic during the peak period
Seasonal Hour Volume Peak hour volumes during different seasons
Design Hour Volume (DHV) The capacity of the roadway to handle traffic
Traffic Assignment Also known as trip assignment Allows us to use network models to predict the distribution of traffic for each roadway by the hour
Vehicles Miles Traveled (VMT) Measures the amount of travel for all vehicles in a geographic region over a period of time
Road Design Focuses on everything from the nature of street hierarchy to actual design guidelines for local streets
Cross Section An "ideal" road would have 10 foot travel lanes, 8 foot parking lanes, and a curb and planting strip Standards can be traced to Federal Highways Administration studies following WWII
Typical Local Street Standards 500 ft maximum tangents (curve) Use of Stop signs or speed humps 150 ft between intersections Clear sight distance of 75 ft
Where do typical street designs come from? Ancient Greeks
What are the advantages of typical street design? Ease of laying out streets Lots of lanes East of navigation (way finding)
What are the disadvantages of typical street design? Maximum of 4-way intersections - creates conflicts Tangent standards cannot always be met Grids result in the maximum pavement and utility line cost Streets can be used as parallel short-cuts during rush hour Grids can be very monotonous and boring
Highway Capacity Manual Published by the Transportation Research Board Provides concepts, guidelines, and procedures for computing highway capacity and quality of service based on road type
Level of Service (LOS) Range from A to F A LOS of a means there is free flowing traffic and F means heavy traffic congestion with severely reduced traffic speeds
Federal-Aid Highway Act (1994) Legislation established a National System of Interstate Highways, and required the Public Roads Administration to establish construction and operation standards for the Interstate Highway System
Public Roads Administration (PRA) Responsible for implementing the highway system
Federal-Aid Highway Act of 1962 Created federal mandate for urban transportation planning in the US It was passed at a time when urban areas were beginning to plan interstate highway routes Act call for continuing, comprehensive, and cooperative (3 c's) planning process
What did the Federal-Aid Highway Act of 1962 also do? Focused on providing funding for not just highways but also transit, pedestrian, and bicycle facilities
Metropolitan Planning Organization (MPO) Create to meet federal requirements for urban transportation planning
How were MPO's established? 1965, Bureau of Public Roads required the creation of planning agencies that would be responsible for carrying out the required transportation planning process As a result, MPO's were established
Transportation Improvement Program (TIP) List of upcoming transportation projects - covering a period of at least four years Prepared by the MPO's
Transportation Demand Management Used to describe strategies for the efficient use of transportation
Car Sharing Allows individuals to purchase a membership to a car service
Flextime Allows employees to work at different times beyond the regular 8 to 5 workday Reduces congestion on roadways during the peak commute times
Guaranteed Ride Home Provides commuters who regularly carpool or use transit with a reliable ride home if an emergency arises
Commute Trip Reduction (CTR) Is one of the tools of a total transportation demand management CTR programs provide commutes with resources and incentives to reduce their vehicle trips, particularly during peak commute hours
Traffic Calming Involves changes in street alignment, installation of barriers, and other physical measures to reduce traffic speeds and/or cut-through volumes, in the interest of street safety, and other public purposes
Chicane Series of staggered curb extensions on altering sides of the roadway
Choker Curb extension in the middle of a block
Fuller or Partial Closure Does not allow traffic beyond a certain point in the roadway
Roundabouts Require vehicles to circulate around a center island
Speed Humps Are raised areas placed across a road and are 3 to 4 inches tall
Speed Table Larger than a speed hump Flat-top and may have brick or another textured material on the flat surface
Traffic Circles Are raised landscapes islands located at the center of an intersection and can vary in size
Parking Requiremetns Standard parking stall in 9 ft by 18 ft
Created by: amshinn18