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# NCE Manual

### Manual for NCE Test Preparation Statistics & Reserach

Term | Definition |
---|---|

Group | A collection or set of people or things defined by some characteristic. |

Characteristic | A distinguishing feature or trait. |

Variable | A feature that, within a particular context, can have more than one value, that is, the feature can vary. |

Continuous variable | One that can take an infinite number of values on a scale. |

Quantitative variable | Permits comparison of people in terms of order (more or less). |

Qualitative variable | Places people in unordered categories (e.g. gender) |

Population | A complete collection of set of individuals who each have the distinguishing characteristic defining the group. That is, all the individuals who have the same characteristic. |

Parameter | A value that in some way summarizes the variable of the population. |

Sample | A group selected from a population. |

Statistic | A value that in some way summarizes the variable of the sample. |

Score | Relative status or amount usually expressed as a number, either on an ordinal scale (lst, 2nd, 3rd) or as a regular number (1, 2, 3). |

Nominal Scale of Measurement | Naming things or categories Numbers are assigned to individuals within a group to identify them., these numbers have no other function. The only mathematical operation is to count the frequency (number) of cases in each category. |

Ordinal Scale of Measurement | Order Numbers are assigned to individuals within a group to indicate hierarchical sequences.The number indicates first, second, third. Able to divide the subjects into categories and then put them in order . Each individual has a rank within the group. |

Interval Scale of Measurement | Constant unit of measure but no absolute “0” point. Numbers are assigned to individuals within a group by applying a constant unit of measure per individual. The researcher, selects a zero point. Can be used to determine the value one individual has vs |

Ratio Scale of Measurement | Constant unit of measure with absolute “0” point Numbers are assigned to individuals by applying a constant unit of measure. Lowest measure "0" shows an absence of the variable. +, -, x, and / and determine proportions or ratio differences. |

Nominal Scale of Measurement Examples | Numbers on a basketball player’s jersey, gender, religion, political affiliation, place of birth, eye color, DSM diagnosis. |

Ordinal Scale of Measurement Examples | Likert Scale is a commonly used example of an ordinal scale. Example: high/moderate/low, win/place/show, what detergent is most often used? |

Interval Scale of Measurement Examples | Determine the daily temperature over ten days in degrees Celsius, determine the daily temperature over ten days in degree Fahrenheit, IQ test scores. |

Descriptive Statistics | Presentation of data as it exists with no predictions or inferences being drawn from it. Includes tables, graphs, measure of central tendency, and measures of variability. |

Inferential Statistics | Leaping from the data that exists to what may be predicted from that data, or generalizing from sample data to population data. |