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Intro & Data

Lesson 7 Spatial Analysis

Geographic Information System (GIS) Computerized mapping system
Spatial Data Data that has a spacial reference (coordinate system, etc.)
Topographic Map Two-dimensional representation of a portion of the three-dimensional surface of the earth
Global Positioning Systems (GPS) System of satellites, computers, and receivers that is able to determine the latitude and longitude
Topographically Integrated Geographical Encoding and Referencing (TIGER) Uses for Census data Includes streets, railroads, zip codes, and landmarks Often used as a base layer
Digital Aerial Photography Photographs taken (usually) from an airplane
Digital Elevation Models (DEMs) Show digital data about the elevation of the earth's surface as it varies across communities allows planners to analyze and map it Can be used storm water management, flood control, land use and other purposes
Light Detection and Ranging (LIDAR) New technology using a laser that is mounted in an airplane to provide detailed topographic information
UrbanSim Simulation software program that models planning and urban development
CommunityViz Software program that allows agencies to create 3D images
Geodesy Measure and representation of the earth
Datum Approximation of earth surface (geoid) as an ellipsoid to compute location
Projections Mathematical transformation from ellipsoid to plane Projects distort at least one of these characteristics: shape, distance, direction or land area Most common: conic & cylindrical
Types of Projections Conformal: shape Equal Area: Area Equidistance: distance True Direction: Direction
Four Fundamental Characteristics of Mapping Shape Distance Direction Land Area
Created by: amshinn18