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Exam #3

Cognition

QuestionAnswer
what are the three stages of long-term memory Encoding, storage, retrieval
What is the process of repeating without any consideration for meaning or making connections with other info Maintenance rehearsal (rote)
This is the process of thinking of the meaning and/or making connections to other info Elaborative rehearsal
What is the process of structural processing, or processing physical qualitites called shallow processing (visual)
What is the process of encoding how something sounds phonemic processing
What is the process of processing meaning called semantic processing (deeper)
what theory involves asking a question, presenting a word, and answering a question according to Craik Levels of processing
What is a limitation of the Levels of Processing Theory? circular reasoning
This shows that the different ways we process info impact how well we remember that info later circular reasoning
____________ is an automatic by-product of cognitive processes episodic memory trace
This is the study involving incidental learning of 504 nouns in which you generate three words associated with each noun cueing retrieval
Encoding specificity, state-dependent learning, and transfer-appropriate processing are all forms of: matching encoding & retrieval
Participants in a study who read something in two separate environments were more likely to retrieve more of that info in the same environment they encoded it in, this is called: Encoding specificity
Participants in a study were more likely to retrieve the info that they learned in the same internal-state they encoded it in (sober vs. drunk) State-dependent learning
Participants in a study were more likely to retrieve info that matched the cognitive process used to encode it transfer-appropriate processing
This is the hypothesized physical representation of memory Engram
This stabilizes memories and increases their resistance to interference memory consolidation
_________ causes structural changes, greater neurotransmitter release, and increased firing rate repeated firing
This is the long-lasting increase in firing between two neurons due to repeated stimulation Long-Term Potentiation
What are the two theories for systems consolidation? Standard Model & Multiple Trace Theory
Which theory argues that if episodic components of memory remain then the hippocampus also remains involved in retrieval of episodic memories Multiple Trace Theory
What is the name of the protein synthesis blocker involved in memory reconsolidation? anisomycin
If anisomycin was injected before consolidation, what happens? leads to memory loss
If anisomycin was injected after consolidation, what happens? no effect on memory
which stage of sleep consolidates declarative/explicit memories slow-wave sleep (3&4)
which stage of sleep is responsible for dreaming and is associated w/procedural memory consolidation REM sleep
Memory reactivation during SWS is associated with: hippocampal activity
Preserved temporal lobes, but bilateral damage to visual cortex results in visual agnosia and retrospective loss of what? autobiographical memories
This is memory for specific experiences from our lives, which can include both episodic and semantic components autobiographical memories
The earliest memories usually range from ____ to ____ years 2.5 to 5 years
In this technique, participants are given a list of words and they have to recall the very first memory that comes to mind from one of those words Galton-Crovitz cueing technique
Memory is enhanced for events that occur while a person's self-image or life identity is being formed, this is known as the: self-image hypothesis
Events are easier to recall when they fit the cultural life script for that person's culture, this is known as the: cultural life script hypothesis
In this procedure, participants were more likely to remember emotional pictures but were less likely to report correct color around emotional pictures remember/know procedure
We remember some life events better because we rehearse these events frequently, this is called the: narrative rehearsal hypothesis
Events are not recalled in the _________ manner in which they were encoded identical
This is the process of determining the origins of our memories, knowledge, and beliefs source monitoring
This is the process in which you confidently attribute the source of info or the contents of a memory to one source that is totally wrong source misattribution
This is the effect in which participants are read a list of words and are told to recall the words they remember hearing but report words that were not given with high confidence DRM paradigm
What is it called when you query parents about childhood experiences to identify real ones and false ones Pre-Induction
This is a memory for when you heard about a surprising, emotional, and consequential event flashbulb memory
Misleading info presented after a person witnesses an event can change how the person remembers and describes that event later, this is called the: misinformation effect
This is when a 'node' is active and stimulates other nodes spreading activation
In this procedure, participants were shown sets of two pairs of letters and had to decide ASAP if both pairs of letters were words. Participants responded quicker with "yes" if both words were related Lexical decision task (spreading activation)
When participants can respond faster when the two words are related vs. not related, this is an example of: conceptual priming
Concepts are arranged in networks that represent the way concepts are organized in the mind. What is this? Interconnected nature of representations
Collins & Quillian's model of concept hierarchy (cognitive economy) cannot explain the: typicality effect
This model has shorter links for closer related concepts, longer links for less closely related concepts, and is based on a person's experience (no hierarchy) Collins & and LOFTUS model
This is an approach to creating computer models for representing cognitive processes Connectionism
This is the connectionist approach for representing concepts which is based on how info is represented in the brain, and they emphasize the role of experience in building networks Parallel Distributed Processing models
In the connectionist approach, units (_____) are inspired by neurons circles
According to the connectionist approach, _____ units are activated by stimuli from the environment input
According to the connectionist approach, ____ units contain the final output of the network output
According to the connectionist approach, _____ units are located between input and output units hidden
This determines how signals are sent between units and can increase or decease signal connection weight
This is the process of disruption occurring only gradually as parts of the system are damaged graceful degradation
This approach involves determining category membership based on whether the object meets the definition of a category definitional approach to categorization
In this approach, concepts are defined by "ideal" or "average" member prototypical approach
In this approach, concepts are defined by previously seen examples and examples are actual category members (not averages) Exemplar approach
Which approach is best for small categories ? exemplar
Which approach is best for larger categories? prototypes
This level of categorization is the highest level with a single visual image, shortest words, and results in the first word that comes to mind basic level
Experts rather than non-experts are better with which level of categorization? subordinate/specific level
Patient E.W. had brain damage that resulted in which category specific deficit ? they could not tell if an object was an animal but could tell if what he saw was definitely an object
Patient J.J. had brain damage that resulted in which category specific deficit? they could not tell if an object was not an animal but could tell if what he saw was an object
In this approach, many factors determine how concepts are divided Multiple-Factor approach
In this approach, our knowledge of concepts is based on reactivation of sensory and motor processes that occur when we interact with the object embodied approach
These are neurons that respond to specific actions- both when the specific action is performed and when observing another perform that action Mirror neurons
This is a general loss of knowledge for all concepts semantic dementia
Patients with semantic dementia typically have damage to their what ? anterior temporal lobe (ATL)
In this model, areas of the brain associated w/specific functions are connected to the ATL, which serves as a hub to integrate the info from these areas Hub & Spoke model
Created by: tparker31