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Psy chapter 6

Psychology chapter 6

learning A relatively enduring change in behavior, resulting from experience
nonassociative learning Responding after repeated exposure to a single stimulus, or event.
associative learning Linking two stimuli, or events, that occur together.
observational learning Acquiring or changing a behavior after exposure to another individual performing that behavior.
habituation A decrease in behavioral response after repeated exposure to a stimulus.
sensitization An increase in behavioral response after exposure to a stimulus.
classical conditioning (Pavlovian conditioning) A type of associative learning in which a neutral stimulus comes to elicit a response when it is associated with a stimulus that already produces that response.
unconditioned response (UR) A response that does not have to be learned, such as a reflex.
unconditioned stimulus (US) A stimulus that elicits a response, such as a reflex, without any prior learning.
conditioned stimulus (CS) A stimulus that elicits a response only after learning has taken place.
conditioned response (CR) A response to a conditioned stimulus; a response that has been learned.
acquisition The gradual formation of an association between the conditioned and unconditioned stimuli.
extinction A process in which the conditioned response is weakened when the conditioned stimulus is repeated without the unconditioned stimulus.
spontaneous recovery A process in which a previously extinguished conditioned response reemerges after the presentation of the conditioned stimulus.
stimulus generalization Learning that occurs when stimuli that are similar but not identical to the conditioned stimulus produce the conditioned response.
stimulus discrimination A differentiation between two similar stimuli when only one of them is consistently associated with the unconditioned stimulus.
Rescorla-Wagner model A cognitive model of classical conditioning; it holds that the strength of the CS-US association is determined by the extent to which the unconditioned stimulus is unexpected.
phobia An acquired fear that is out of proportion to the real threat of an object or of a situation.
operant conditioning (instrumental conditioning) A learning process in which the consequences of an action determine the likelihood that it will be performed in the future.
law of effect Thorndike’s general theory of learning: Any behavior that leads to a “satisfying state of affairs” is likely to occur again, and any behavior that leads to an “annoying state of affairs” is less likely to occur again.
reinforcer A stimulus that follows a response and increases the likelihood that the response will be repeated.
shaping A process of operant conditioning; it involves reinforcing behaviors that are increasingly similar to the desired behavior.
positive reinforcement The administration of a stimulus to increase the probability of a behavior’s being repeated.
negative reinforcement The removal of an unpleasant stimulus to increase the probability of a behavior’s being repeated.
continuous reinforcement A type of learning in which behavior is reinforced each time it occurs.
partial reinforcement A type of learning in which behavior is reinforced intermittently.
Fixed Interval Schedule (FI) Occurs when reinforcement is provided after a certain amout of time has passed.
Variable Interval Schedule (VI) Occurs when reinforcement is provided after the passage of time, but the time is not regular.
Fixed Ratio Schedule (FR) Occurs when reinforcement is provided after a certain number of responses have been made.
Variable Ratio Schedule (VR) Occurs when reinforcement is provided after an unpredicatable number of responses.
Ratio Schedule Based on the number of times the behavior occurs, as when a behavior is reinforced on every third or tenth occurrence.
Interval schedule Based on a specific unit of time, as when a behavior is reinforced when it is performed every minute or hour.
Fixed schedule Partical reinforcemennt also can be given on a predictable
Variable schedule Less predictable.
partial-reinforcement extinction effect The greater persistence of behavior under partial reinforcement than under continuous reinforcement.
positive punishment The administration of a stimulus to decrease the probability of a behavior’s recurring.
negative punishment The removal of a stimulus to decrease the probability of a behavior’s recurring.
behavior modification The use of operant-conditioning techniques to eliminate unwanted behaviors and replace them with desirable ones.
cognitive map A visual/spatial mental representation of an environment.
latent learning Learning that takes place in the absence of reinforcement.
modeling The imitation of observed behavior.
vicarious learning Learning the consequences of an action by watching others being rewarded or punished for performing the action.
mirror neurons Neurons in the brain that are activated when one observes another individual engage in an action and when one performs a similar action.
Created by: Haleyannestes
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