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ch1-4 anatomy


density demonstrated on a film is degree of blackening
contrast is primarily controlled by kv
contrast is secondary controlling factor is mAs
immobilization devices prevent what type of motion volountary
short exposure controls what type of motion involountary
if IR is angled at the head the angle is called cephalic
who discovered x-rays and when wilhelm conrad roentgen nov.8, 1895
device that has lead shutters, restricts beam collimator
what plane divides the body into right and left halves midsagittal
which body habitus fits 35% of people hyposthenic
what body habitus is 50%, muscular, longer lung field sthenic
name a pivot joint c1-c2, radioulnar
name position when x-ray tube is overhead and patient is lying on table in oblique position with right side closest to the table RPO
what side of the patient is prodominently down during a lateral decubitus left
external landmark of the iliac crest L4-L5
axial skeleton refers to what part of the skeleton spine/ribs/skull
another term for AP oblique LPO
left lateral decub could be AP/PA projection
which geometric factors cause magnification or distortion IR alignment, CR alignment, OID,SID
focal spot size is a controlling factor for what resolution
smallest element of the matrix is a pixel
why are the shoulders rolled forward on a PA chest remove scapulas from lung field
in a PA chest CR is directed to level of T-7
why are chest X-rays done from a 72in distance prevent magnification
you can detect rotation on a PA chest by SCJ, distance from spinal processes to pedicles
rotation on a Lateral chest is determined by left posterior ribs are longer than right posterior ribs
why is a PA upright preferred over AP upright less heart magnification from PA
what is the range of kV for a chest radiograph 100-130 kVp
the angle of the CR for a patient in a bed or wheel chair sternum body
muscles located on either side of lumbar vertebral column that determines proper density on an abdomen psoas muscles
a three way abdomen series consists of AP upright w/40SID, AP supine w/40SID, erect chest 72SID
kVp range for abdomen radiograph is 70-80
what is an alternate abdominal image for a patient unable to stand for the upright L lateral decub
what anatomy must be demonstrated on a supine abdomen that is not necessary demonstrated on the supine image symphis pubis
where do you position the CR for a supine abdomen Iliac crest
where do you position the CR for an upright abdomen 2" above the iliac crest
radiographs of the abdomen are taken on what type of respiration expiration
name the ten body systems and one function for each endocrine hormones muscular postureskeletal support tissue integumentary skinreproductive reproduce organismrespiratory eliminates CO2digestive eliminates wasteurinary regulate fluid circulatory body tempnervous electric impulse
four classification of bones and example for each long-humerus, femurshort-tarsals, carpalsflat-scapula, sternumirregular-pelvis,vertebrae
what part of the bone produces red blood cells medullary
what are the primary and secondary growth centers periosteum, secondary is ephysis until age 25
classification of joint functions synarthrosis-immovablamiarthrosis-limited movementdiathrosis-freely movable
classification of joint structures and examples fibrous-(no movement)skull, roots of teethcartilaginous-(limited movement)ephysis,symphysis pubis,disk spacesynovial(contains fluid)-freely movable 1st carpometacarpal, interphalageal,hip
types of joint movements and example of anatomy demonstrating movement plane-intercarpal joints, carpometacarpal hinge-elbow and 2-5 digitspivot-C1-C2, distal radioulnarellipsoidal-wristsaddle-1st carpalmetacarpal(thumb), ankleball-n-socket-shoulder, hipbicondylar-mandibular, knee
what is a projection direction, path of central ray
what is a position general body position, terms include planes or sections
term for image of anatomical parts radiograph
minimum number of projections are if joints are of interest 3, pelvis 1-unless hip injury, 2-for determining positioning routines
how are radiographs to be viewed hang so patient is facing viewer in anatomical position, digits hung up, decubs with side up marker,
what are the exposure factors kV, mA, exposure time
what is the purpose of compensating filters filter out portion of primary beam to dense parts
controlling factors for contrast scatter, close collimation, grids
what makes a long scale low contrast image high kV
another name for sharpness and its controlling factors resolution small focal spot, motion, SID,OID
if objects look misrepresented in size or shape they are and the controlling factors distorted OID,SID,CR alignment
another name for density blackness
what is the 15% rule up your kV 15%, then 1/2 mAs
name 6 quality factors for digital brightness-replaces densitycontrast-difference in light and dark areasresolution-sharpnessdistortion-SID,OID,CR alignmentExposur index-value recieved by IR (dependent on mAs,kV, area radiatedNoise-obsecures image clarity, high SNR is desirable
what are some post processing options on Digital windowing-contrast&brightnesssmoothing-brightness, closer pixelsmagnification-magnifyedge-enhancement-increase brightnesssubtraction-cut off back round anatomyimage reversal-light-to-darkannotation-add text to image
cr system consists of image plates, reader, workstation
digital imaging has more or less repeats less, because radiograph can be manipulated by post processing options
three muscles visible on abdomen radiograph 2-psoas muscles and diaphram
what are the major organs of the digestive system oral cavity, pharynx, esophagus, stomach,small intestine,lg intestine
what major organs of the digestive system are also part of the respitory system oral cavity and pharynx
pharynx turns into esophagus
what are the accessory organs of the digestive system and their function pancreas-produces insulinliver-produces bile, largest solid organ of bodygallbladder-stores bile
urinary system consists of kidneys-eliminates excessive water from blooduteter-goes to bladderbladder-stores urineurethra-volountary controlsuprarenal glands
what are the seven landmarks for the abdomen xiphoid process,inferior costal rib margin (t9-t10_,iliac crest L4-L5,ASIS,greater trochanter,symphis pubis, ischial turbosity
what is ascites accumulation of fluid in the peritoneal cavity
post-op abdomen holds air for how long 2-3wks after surgery
what projections for a 3-way acute series AP supine,AP erect,PA chest
what projections for a 2-way acute series AP supine,AP erect or L lateral decub
how many projections for a KUB, what is of interest for a KUB 1, kidneys,uterer,bladder
name the nine regions right hypochondriac, epigastric,L hypochondriacR lateral lumbar,umbilical,L lateral lumbarR iliac,hypogastric,L iliac
what is contained in the retroperitoneal cavity adrenal glands,kidneys,pancreas,duodenum,ascending colon,descending colon,ureter
what is contained in the intraperitoneal cavity liver,gallbladder,spleen,stomach,jejunum,ileum,cecum,transverse and sigmoid colon
what is contained in the infraperitoneal cavity bladder,reproductive organs,rectum
three landmarks for a chest projection C-7,jugular notch, xiphoid process
bony thorax consists of sternum,manbrium,xiphoid process,2 clavicles,2 scapulae,twelve pair of ribs,twelve thoracic vertebrae
Respitory system is made of what four parts of anatomy pharynx,trachea,bronchi,lungs
when diaphram moves down what happens to the volume of the thorax increases
larynx is the voice box and what prominence laryngeal
the thyroid is sensitive to exposure, why is it so unique stores hormones,regulates metabolism,regulates body growth,and nervous system
bronch split at what level of thoracic vertabrae T4 or T5
the lowest margin of the separation of the trachea into R and L bronchi carina
how many lobes in the right lung,and name them 3, superior or upper,middle,inferior or lower
what is air or gas present in the pleural cavity called pneumothorax
Pleura is made up of 3 parts outer-parietal,middle-pleura cavity,inner-viscreal
upper area above clavicles apex
Chest radiograph important structures apex,sternoclavicular joints, hilum,diaphram,costaphrenic angles,heart
four radiographically important structures located inside the mediastinum are thymus gland,heart and great vessels,trachea,esophagus
hearts location in reference to the sternum body of sternum,or 5-8 thoracic vertabrae
how many ribs should be shown in an adult radiograph 10
what are some patient preparations removal of opaque objects,remove long hair or braids form field,oxygen lines or leads should be removed from field
anything over a certain kVp requires a grid, what kVp 100
for geriatric patients a special consideration is necessary because they have shallow lung fields higher CR location
if only 8-ribs are shown the exposure could have been taken on inspiration or expiration expiration
three reasons chests are done erect diaphram moves down-liver and other organs move down air and fluid levels visible-air rises, fluid gravitates to lowest positionprevent engorgement of vessels
what is kyphosis hump back curvature
what is the purpose of chin extension chin and neck not superimposed on uppermost lung region
CR location on a chest hand spread methodmale 8in. and female 7in
what is atelectasis collapse lung
increase exposure for these conditions atelectasis,pleural effusion,RDS
where do you collimate outer skin margins
what is in the RUQ liver,gallbladder,R hepatic flexure,duodenum,head of pancreas,R kidney,R suprarenal gland
what is in the LUQ spleen,stomach,L splenic flexure,tail of pancreas,L kidney,L suprarenal gland
what is in the RLQ ascending colon,appendix,cecum,ileocecal valve,2/3 of ileum
what is in the LLQ descending colon,sigmoid colon and 2/3 of jejunum
what is ileus non mechanical bowel obstruction
anode heel effect basic concept more intense under cathode
example of high contrast,short scale 50kV 800mAs
how do you increase contrast close collimation reduces scatter for better quality radiograph
body parts measuring over what require a grid 10CM
what will happen on the sides of a radiograph if your focal spot is to large penumbra-unsharp edges of objects
what are the exposure factors for pediatric patients use pigg-o-stat,60-70 kV
summarize resolution factors small focal spot,increase SID,decrease OID
the least amount of distortion is seen at the CR
some advantages of DR over CR DR eliminates cassettes,imaging processing is shorter,reduced exposure factors
what is the PACS Picture,Archiving,Communication,Systemconnection of various equipment that are able to communicate and transmit images and information
Created by: mharvey