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Upper Limb (MOORE)

Upper Limb (MOORE), insertion, action, innervation

NamePADAInnervationMain Action
Serrates anterior External surfaces of lateral parts of 1st-8 ribs Anterior surface of medial border of scapula Long thoracic nerve C6 C7 Protracts scapula and holds it against thoracic wall; rotates scapula
Trapezius Medial third of superior nuchal line; external occipital protuberance; nuchal ligament; spinous processes of C7-T12 vertebrae Lateral third of clavicle; acromion and spine of scapula Spinal accessory nerve CNXI motor fibres, C3 C4 Spinal nerves pain an proprioceptive Descending part elevates; ascending part depresses; middle part retracts scapula; descending and ascending act together to rotate glenoid cavity superiorly
Latissimus dorsi Spinous processes of inferior 6 thoracic vertebrae, thoracolumbar fascia, iliac crest and inferior 3 or 4 ribs Floor of bicipital groove Thoracodorsal Nerve C6 C7 Extends, adducts and medially rotates humerus,
Levator Scapulae Posterior tubercles of transverse processes of C1-C4 vertebrae Medial border o scapula superior to root of scapular spine Dorsal scapular C4 C5 and cervical C3 C4 nerves Elevates scapula and rotates its glenoid cavity inferiorly by rotating scapula
Rhomboid Minor Nuchal ligament, spinous processes of C7 and T1 Smooth triangular area at medial end of scapular spine Dorsal scapular nerve C5 Retract scapula and rotate its glenoid cavity inferiorly, fix scapula to thoracic wall
Rhomboid Major Spinous processes of T2-T5 Medial border of scapula from level of spine to inferior angle Dorsal scapular nerve C5 Retract scapula and rotate its glenoid cavity inferiorly, fix scapula to thoracic wall
Deltoid Lateral third of clavicle, acromion and spine of scapula Deltoid tuberosity Axillary Nerve C5 Clavicular - flexes medially rotates Acromial - Abducts arm Spinal - Extends and laterally rotates arm
Supraspinatus Supraspinous fossa of scapula Superior facet of greater tubercle of humerus Suprascapular nerve C5 Initiates and assists deltoid in abduction of arm and acts with rotator cuff muscles
infraspinatus Infraspinous fossa of scapula Middle facet of great tubercle of humerus Suprascapular nerve C5 Laterally rotes arm and acts rotator cuff
Teres minor Middle part of lateral border of scapula inferior races of greater tubercle of humerus axially nerve C5 Laterally rotates arm, rotator cuff
Teres major Posterior surface of inferior angle of scapula Medial lip of bicipital groove of humerus Lower subscapualar nerve C6 Adducts and medially rotates arm
Subscapularis Sub scapular fossa Lesser tubercle Upper and lower sub scapular nerves C6 Medially rotates arm, as part of rotator cuff helps hold head of humerus in glenoid cavity
Biceps brachii Short head - tip of coccoid press of scapula Long head - supraglenoid tubercle of scapula Tuberosity of radius and fascia of forearm via bicipital aponeurosis Musculocutaneous C6 Supinates forearm and when it is supine flexes forearm, short head resists dislocation of shoulder
Coracobrachialis tip of coccoid press of scapula middle third of medial surface of humerus Musculocutaneous C6 Helps flex and adduct arm, resists dislocation of shoulder
Brachialis Distal half of anterior surface of humerus Coronoid process and tuberosity of ulna Musculocutaneous nerve C5 C6 and Radial nerve C5, C7 Flexes forearm in all positions.
Triceps brachii Long head - infraglenoid tubercle of scapula Lateral head - posterior surface of humerus superior to radial groove Medial head posterior surface of humerus inferior to radial groove Proximal end of olecranon of ulna and fascia of forearm Radial nerve C7 C8 Chief extensor of forearm, long head resists dislocation especially important during adduction
Anconeus Lateral epicondyle of humerus Lateral surface of olecranon and superior part of posterior surface of ulna Radial Nerve C7 C8 T1 Assists triceps in extending forearm stabilises elbow joint, may abduct ulna during pronation
Pronator teres Ulnar Head - Cornoid process Humeral Head - Medial epicondyle of humerus Middle of convexity of lateral surface of radius Median nerve C7 Pronates and flexes forearm
Flexor carpi radialis Medial epicondyle of humerus Base of 2nd metacarpal Median nerve C7 Flexes and abducts hand
Palmaris Longus Medial epicondyle of humerus Distal half of flexor retinaculum and apex of palmar aponeurosis Median nerve C7, C8 Flexes hand and tenses palmar aponeurosis
Flexor carpi ulnaris Humeral Head:Medial epicondyle of humerus Ulnar Head - Olecranon and posterior border of ulna Pisiform, hook of hamate and 5th metacarpal Ulnar Nerve C8 Flexes and adducts hand
Flexor digitorum superficialis Humeroulnar head - medial epicondyle (common flexor origin and coronoid process) Radial head Superior half of anterior border Shafts of middle phalanges of medial four digits Median nerve C7, C8 T1 Flexes middle phalanges at proximal interphalaneal joints of middle four digits, acting more strongly it also flexes proximal phalanges at metacarpohalangeal joints
Flexor digitorum profundus Proximal three quarters of medial and anterior surfaces of ulna an dinterosseious membrane bases of distal phalanges of 2nd-5th metatarsals Medial 2 digits - Ulnar Nerve T1 2nd and 3rd digits - Anterior interosseous nerve from median nerve C8 Flexes distal phalanges of 2-5 digits at distal interphalangeal joints
Flexor pollicis Longus Anterior surface of radius and adjacent interosseous membrane Base of distal phalanx of thumb Anterior interosseous nerve from median nerve C8 Flexes phalanges of first digit
Pronator quadratus Distal quarter of anterior surface of ulna Distal quarter of anterior surface of radius Anterior interosseous nerve from median nerve C8 Pronates forearm, deep fibres bind radius and ulna together
Brachioradioalis Proximal two thirds of supra-epicondylar ridge of humerus Lateral surface of distal end of radius proximal to styloid process Radial Nerve C6 Relatively weak flexion of forearm, maximal when forearm is in mid pronated position
Extensor carpi radialis longus Lateral supra-epicondylar ridge of humerus Dorsal Aspect of base of 2nd metacarpal Radial Nerve C6 C7 Extend and abduct hand at the wrist joint,
Extensor carpi radialis brevis Lateral epicondyle of humerus (common extensor origin) Dorsal aspect of base of 3rd Metacarpal Deep branch of radial nerve C7 Extend and abduct hand at the wrist joint,
Extensor Digitorum Lateral epicondyle of humerus (common extensor origin) Extensor expansions of medial four digits Deep branch of radial nerve C7 Extends medial four digits primarily at metacarpophalangeal joints secondarily at interphalangeal joints
Extensor digitorym minimi Lateral epicondyle of humerus (common extensor origin) Extensor expansion of 5th Digit Deep branch of radial nerve C7 Extends 5th digit primarily at metacarpophalangeal joint and secondary interphalangeal joint
Extensor carpi ulnaris Lateral epicondyle of humerus, posterior border of ulna via a shared aponeurosis Dorsal aspect of base of 5th metacarpal Deep branch of radial nerve C7 Extends and adducts hand at wirst
Supinator Lateral epicondyle of humerus, radial collateral and angular ligaments, supinator fossa, crest of ulna lateral, posterior, anterior surfaces of proximal third of radius Deep branch of radial nerve C8 Supinates forearm, rotates radius to turn palm anteriorly or superiorly ( if elbow is flexed)
Extensor indicis Posterior surface of distal third of ulna and interosseous membrane Extensor expansion 2nd digit Posterior interosseous nerve C7 , continuation of deep branch of radial nerve Extends 2nd digit ( enable independent extension, helps wrist extend hand
Abductor pollicis longus Posterior surface of proximal halves of ulna, radius and interosseous membrane Base of 1st metacarpal Posterior interosseious nerve C8 continuation of deep branch of radial nerve Abducts thumb and extends it at carpometacarpal joint
Extensor pollicis longus Posterior surface of middle third of ulna and interosseous membrane dorsal aspect of base of distal phalanx of thumb Posterior interosseious nerve C8 continuation of deep branch of radial nerve Extends distal phalanx of thumb at interphalangeal joint, extends metacarpophalangeal joint, extends carpometacarpal joint
Extensor pollicis brevis Posterior surface of distal third of radius and interosseous membrane Dorsal aspect of base of proximal phalanx of thumb Posterior interosseious nerve C8 continuation of deep branch of radial nerve Extends proximal phalanx of thumb at metacarpophalangeal joint extends carpometacarpal joint
Opponens Pollicis Flexor retinaculum and tubercles of scaphoid and tapezium Lateral side of 1st metacarpal Recurrent branch of median nerve C8 To oppose thumb, it draws 1st metacarpal medially to centre of palm and rotates it medially
Abductor pollicis brevis Flexor retinaculum and tubercles of scaphoid and trapezium Lateral side of base of proximal phalanx of thumb Recurrent branch of median nerve C8 Abducts thumb, helps oppose it
Flexor pollicis brevis Flexor retinaculum and tubercles of scaphoid and tapezium Lateral side of base of proximal phalanx of thumb Superficial head -Recurrent branch of median nerve C8 Deep Head - Deep branch of ulnar nerve T1 Flexes Thumb
Adductor Pollicis Oblique head - bases of 2nd and 3rd metacarpals, capitate, adjacent carpals Transverse head - anterior surface of shaft of 3rd metacarpal medial side of base of proximal phalanx of thumb Deep branch of ulnar nerve T1 adducts thumb toward lateral border of palm
abductor digiti minimi Pisiform Medial side of base of proximal phalanx of 5th digit Deep branch of ulnar nerve T1 Abducts 5th digit, assists in flexion of its proximal phalanx
Flexor digiti minimi brevis Hook of hamate and flexor retinaculum Medial side of base of proximal phalanx of 5th digit Deep branch of ulnar nerve T1 Flexes proximal phalanx of 5th digit
Opponens digiti Hook of hamate and flexor retinaculum Medial border of 5th metacarpal Deep branch of ulnar nerve T1 Draws 5th metacarpal anterior and rotes it, bringing 5th digit into opposition with thumb
Lumbricals 1st-4th 1st - 2nd -Lateral two tendons of flexor digitorum profundus (as unipennate muscles) 3rd-4th - medial three tendons of flexor digitorum profundus (as bipinnate muscles) Lateral sides of extensor expansions of 2nd - 5th digits 1st and 2nd - Median nerve T1 3rd and 4th - Deep branch of ulnar nerve T1 Flex metacarpophlangeal joints, extend interphalangeal joints 2nd-5th digits
Dorsal interossei 1st-4th Adjacent sides of two metacarpals (as bipinnate muscles) Bases of proximal phalanges, extensor expansions of 2nd-4th digits Deep branch of ulnar nerve T1 Abduct 2nd-4th digits from axial line, act with lumbricals in flexing metacarpophalangeal joints and extending interphalangeal joints
Palmar Interossei 1st-3rd Palmar surfaces of 2nd, 4th and 5th metacarpals(as unipennate muscles) Bases of proximal phalanges, extensor expansions of 2nd, 4th and 5th digits Deep branch of ulnar nerve T1 Adduct 2nd, 4th and 5th digits toward axial line, assist lumbricals in flexing metacarpophalangeal joints and extending interphalangeal joints, extensor expansions of 2nd-4th digits
Pectoralis Major Clavicular head: anterior surface of medial half of clavicle Sternocostal head: anterior surface of sternum superior six postal cartilages, aponeurosis of external oblique muscle lateral lip of bicipital groove of humerus Lateral and medial pectoral nerves clavicular head C6 Sternocostal head C7 C8 Adducts and medially rotates humerus, draws scapula anteriorly and inferiorly, acting alone clavicular head flexes humerus and sternocostal head extends it from the flexed position
Pectoralis minor 3rd-5th ribs near their costal cartilages medial border and superior surface of coracoid process of scapula medial pectoral nerve C8 T1 stabilises scapula by drawing it inferiorly and anteriorly agains thoracic wall
Subclavius Junction of 1st rib and its costal cartialge inferior surface of middle third clavicle Nerve to subclavius C5 C6 Anchors and presses clavicle
Created by: Sophie17