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Lower limb (MOORE)

Lower Limb origin, insertion, action, innervation (MOORE)

NamePADAInnervationAction
Illiacus Iliac crest, iliac fossa, ala of sacrum, anterior sacroiliac ligaments Tendon of psoas major, lesser trochanter and femur distal to it Femoral nerve L2 L3 Act conjointly in flexing thigh at hip joint and in stabilising this joint
Sartorius Anterior Superior iliac spine and superior part of notch inferior to it Superior part of medial surface of tibia Femoral Nerve L2, L3 Flexes, abducts and laterally rotates thigh at hip joint flexes leg at knee joint (medially rotating leg when knee is flexed)
Rectus Femoris Anterior inferior iliac spine and ilium superior to acetabulum Via common quadriceps tendon, independent attachments to base of patella; indirectly via patellar ligament to tibial tuberosity; medial and lateral vast also attach to tibia and patella via aponeuroses Femoral Nerve L3 L4 Extend leg at knee joint; rectus femurs also steadies hip joint and help iliopsoas flex thigh
Vastus Lateralis Greater trochanter and lateral lip of lines aspera of femur Via common quadriceps tendon, independent attachments to base of patella; indirectly via patellar ligament to tibial tuberosity; medial and lateral vast also attach to tibia and patella via aponeuroses Femoral Nerve L3 L4 Extend leg at knee joint; rectus femurs also steadies hip joint and help iliopsoas flex thigh
Vastus medialis Intertochanteric line and medial lip of lines aspera of femur Via common quadriceps tendon, independent attachments to base of patella; indirectly via patellar ligament to tibial tuberosity; medial and lateral vast also attach to tibia and patella via aponeuroses Femoral Nerve L3 L4 Extend leg at knee joint; rectus femurs also steadies hip joint and help iliopsoas flex thigh
Vastus intermmedius Anterior and lateral surfaces of shaft of femur Via common quadriceps tendon, independent attachments to base of patella; indirectly via patellar ligament to tibial tuberosity; medial and lateral vast also attach to tibia and patella via aponeuroses Femoral Nerve L3 L4 Extend leg at knee joint; rectus femurs also steadies hip joint and help iliopsoas flex thigh
Adductor longus Body of pubis inferior to pubic crest Middle third of lines aspera of femur Obturator nerve, anterior division L3 Adducts Thigh
Adductor Brevis Body and inferior ramus of pubis Pectineal line and proximal part of lines aspera of femur Obturator nerve, anterior division L3 Adducts thigh; to some extent flexes it
Adductor Magnus Adductor part: inferior rams of pubism ramus of ischium Hamstring part: ischial tuberosity Adductor part: Gluteal tuberosity, linea aspera, medial supracondylar line Hamstring part: adductor tubercle of femur Adductor part: Obturator nerve L3 L4 branches of posterior division Hamstring Part: tibial part of sciatic nerve L4 Adducts thigh flexes thigh and hamstring part extends thigh
Gracilis Body and inferior ramus of pubis superior part of medial surface of tibia Obturator nerve L2 Adducts thigh; flexes leg; helps rotate leg medially
Obturator externus Margins of obturator foramen and obturator memebrane Trochanter fossa of femur Obturatior nerve L4 Laterally rotates thigh; steadies head of femur in acetabulum
Gluteus maximus Ilium posterior to posterior gluteal line; dorsal surface of sacrum and coccyx; sacrotuberous ligament IT band in lateral condyle of tibia; gluteal tuberosity inferior gluteal nerve S1 S2 Extends thigh especially from flexed position and assists in it lateral rotation. steadies thigh and assists in rising from sitting position
Gluteus Medius External surface of ilium between anterior and posterior gluteal lines Lateral surface of greater trochanter of femur Superior gluteal nerve L5 Abduct medially rotate thigh, keep pelvis level when ipsilateral limb is weight bearing
Gluteus Minimus External surface of ilium between anterior and inferior gluteal lines Anterior surface of greater trochanter of femur Superior gluteal nerve L5 Abduct medially rotate thigh, keep pelvis level when ipsilateral limb is weight bearing
Tensor Fasciae latae Anterior superior iliac spine, anterior part of iliac crest IT tract - lateral condyle tibia Superior gluteal nerve L5 Abduct medially rotate thigh, keep pelvis level when ipsilateral limb is weight bearing
Piriformis Anterior surface of sacrum, sacrotuberous ligament superior border of greater trochanter of femur Branches of anterior rami of S1 Laterally rotate extended thigh and abduct flexed thigh, steady femoral head in acetabulum
Obturator internus Pelvic surface of obturator membrane and surrounding bones Medial surface of greater trochanter of femur, Trochanteric fossa Nerve to obturator interns S1 Laterally rotate extended thigh and abduct flexed thigh, steady femoral head in acetabulum
Superior gemelli Ischial Spine Medial surface of greater trochanter of femur, Trochanteric fossa Nerve to obturator interns S1 Laterally rotate extended thigh and abduct flexed thigh, steady femoral head in acetabulum
Inferior gemelli ischial tuberosity Medial surface of greater trochanter of femur, Trochanteric fossa Nerve to quadrates femoris L5 S1 Laterally rotate extended thigh and abduct flexed thigh, steady femoral head in acetabulum
Quadrates femoris Lateral border of ischial tuberosity Quadrate tubercle on intertrochanteric crest of femur and area inferior to it Nerve to quadrates femoris L5 S1 Laterally rotates thigh, steadies femoral head in acetabulum
Semitendinosus Ischial tuberosity Medial surface of superior part of tibia Tibial division of sciatic nerve L5 S1 Extend thigh, flex leg and rotate it medially when knee is flexed, when thigh and leg are flexed, these muscles can extend trunk
Semimembranosus ischial tuberosity posterior part of medial condyle of tibia, relflexted attachment forms oblique popliteal ligament Tibial division of sciatic nerve L5 S1 Extend thigh, flex leg and rotate it medially when knee is flexed, when thigh and leg are flexed, these muscles can extend trunk
Biceps femoris Long head: ischial tuberosity, Short head: linea aspera and lateral supracondylar line of femur Lateral side of head of fibular, tendon is split at this site by fibular collateral ligament of knee Long head: tibial division of sciatic nerve S1 Short head: Common fibular division of sciatic nerve S1 Flexes leg and rotates it laterally when knee is flexed, extends thigh e.g. accelerating mass during first step of gait
Tibialis anterior Lateral condyle and superior half of lateral surface of tibia and interosseous membrane medial and inferior surfaces of medial cuneiform and base of 1st metatarsal Deep fibular nerve L4 Dorsiflexes ankle and inverts foot
Extensor digitorum longus Lateral condyle of tibia and superior three quarters of medial surface of fibula and interosseous membrane middle and distal phalanges of lateral four digits Deep fibular nerve L4 Extends lateral four digits and dorsiflexes ankle
Extensor hallucis longus Middle part of anterior surface of fibula and interosseous membrane dorsal aspect of base of distal phalanx of great toe Deep fibular nerve L4 Extends great toe and dorsiflexes ankle
Fibulas tertius Inferior third of anterior surface of fibula and interosseous membrane Dorm of base of 5th metatarsal Deep fibular nerve L4 Dorsiflexes ankle and aids in eversion of foot
Fibulas longus Head and superior two thirds of lateral surface of fibula Base of 1st metatarsal medial cuneiform Superficial fibular nerve L5 S1 Everts foot and weakly plantar flexes ankle
Fibulas brevis Inferior two thirds o lateral surface of fibula Dorsal surface of tuberosity on lateral side of base of 5th MEtatarsal Superficial fibular nerve L5 S1 Everts foot and weakly plantar flexes ankle
Gastrocnemius Lateral head: lateral aspect of lateral condyle of femur, Medial head: popliteal surface of femur superior to medial condyle Posterior surface of calcaneus via calcanea tendon Tibia Nerve S1 S2 Plantar flexes ankle when knee is extended, raises heel during walking, flexes leg at knee joint
Soleus Posterior aspect of head and superior quarter of posterior surface of fibula, soleal line and middle third of medial border of tibia, and tendinous arch extending between the bony attachements Posterior surface of calcaneus via calcanea tendon Tibia Nerve S1 S2 Plantar flexes ankle independent of position of knee, steadies leg on foot
Plantaris Inferior end of lateral supraondylar line of femur, oblique popliteal ligament Posterior surface of calcaneus via calcanea tendon Tibia Nerve S1 S2 weakly assists gastrocnemius in plantar flexing ankle
Popliteus Lateral surface of lateral condlyel of femur and lateral meniscus Posterior surface of tibia superior to solar line Tibial nerve L4 L5 S1 Weakly flexes knee and unlocks it by rotating femur 5 degrees on fixed tibia, medially rotates tibia of unplanted limb
Flexor hallucis Longus Inferior tow thirds of posterior surface of fibula, inferior part o f interosseous membrane base of distal phalanx of great toe Tibial nerve S2 S3 Flexes great toe at all joints, weakly plantar flexes ankle, supports medial longitudinal arch of foot
Tibialis posterior Interosseous membrane, posterior surface of tibia inferior to solar line, posterior surface of fibula Tuberosity of navicular, cuneiform, cuboid, and sustentaculum talks of calcaneus, bases of 2nd 3rd and 4th metatarsals Tibial Nerve L4 L5 Plantar flexes ankle, inverts foot
Flexor digitorum longus Medial part of posterior surface of tibia inferior to solar line; by a broad tendon of fibula Bases of distal phalanges of lateral four digits Tibial nerve S2 S3 Flexes lateral four digits, plantar flexes ankle, supports longitudinal arches of foot
Abductor hallucis Medial tubercle of tuberosity of calcaneus, flexor retinaculum , plantar aponeurosis Medial side of base of proximal phalanx of 1st digit Medial plantar nerve S2 S3 Abducts and flexes 1st digit
Flexor digitorum brevis Medial tubercle of tuberosity of calcaneus, plantar aponeurosis, inter muscular septa Both sides of middle phalanges of lateral four digits Medial plantar nerve S2 S3 Flexes lateral four digits
Abductor digiti minimi Medial lateral tubercles of tuberosity of calcaneus, plantar aponeurosis, inter muscular speta Lateral side of base of proximal phalanx of 5th digit Lateral plantar nerve S2 S3 Abducts and flexes little toe 5th digite
Quadrates plantae Medial surface and lateral margin of plantar surface of calcaneus Posterolateral margin of tendon of flexor digitorum longus Lateral plantar nerve S2 S3 Assists flexor digitorum longs in flexing lateral four digits
Lumbricals Tendons of flexor digitorum longus Medial aspect of expansion over lateral four digits Medial one: Medial plantar nerve S2 S3 Lateral 3: Lateral plantar nerve S2 S3 Flex proximal phalanges, extend middle and distal phalanges of lateral four digits
Flexor hallucis brevis Plantar surfaces of cuboid and lateral cuneiforms Both sides of base of proximal phalanx of 1st digit Medial plantar nerve S2 S3 Flexes proximal phalanx 1st digit
Adductor hallucis Oblique head: bases of metatarsal 2-4 Transverse head: plantar ligaments of metatarsophalanges joints Tendons of both heads attach to lateral side of base of proximal phalanx of 1st digit Deep branch of lateral plantar nerve S2 S3 adduct first digit, assists in transverse arch of foot by metatarsals medially
Flexor digit minimi brevis Base of 5th Metatarsal base of proximal phalanx of 5th digit superficial branch of lateral plantar nerve S2 S3 flexes proximal phalanx 5th digit
Plantar interossei 3 Muscles Plantar aspect of medial sides of shafts of metatarsals 3-5 Medial sides of bases o phalanges of 3rd to 5th digit Lateral plantar nerve S2 S3 Adducts digits 3-5 and flex metatarsophalangeal joints
Dorsal Interossei (4 muscles) Adjacent sides of shafts of metatarsals 1-5 1st medial side of proximal phalanx of 2nd digit 2-4th lateral sides of 2-4th digit Lateral plantar nerve S2 S3 Abducts digits 2-4 and flex metatarsophalangeal joints.
Extensor digitorum brevis Calcaneus (floor of tarsal sinus), interosseous talocalcaneal ligament, stem of inferior extensor retinaculum Long extensor tendons of four medial digits toes 2-4 Deep fibular nerve L5 or S1 or both Aids the extensor digitorum longs in extending the four medial toes at the metatarsophalangeal and interphalangeal joints
Extensor hallucis brevis Calcaneus (floor of tarsal sinus), interosseous talocalcaneal ligament, stem of inferior extensor retinaculum (same as Extensor digitorum brevis) Dorsal aspect of base of proximal phalanx of great toe Deep fibular nerve L5 or S1 or both Aids the extensor hallucis longs in extending the great toe at the metatarsophalangeal joint.
Hip Flexors Illiopsoas, sartorius, TFL, Rectus femoris, tendon, pectinous, adductor longus, adductor brevis, adductor magnus Anterior part, gracilis
Adductors Pectinous, adductor longs, adductor brevis, adductor magnus, obturator externus, gracilis
Lateral rotators obturator externus, piriformes, obturator internus, gemelli, quadratus femoris, gluteus maximus
Extensors Gluteus maximus, hamstrings: semitendinosus, semimembranosus, long head - biceps femoris, Adductor magnus - posterior part
Abductors Gluteus medius gluteus minimus, TFL
Medial rotators Gluteus medius and gluteus minimus - anterior parts; TFL
Pectineus Superior rams of pubis Pectineal line, just inferior to lesser trochanter Femoral Nerve L2 L3 Adducts and flexes thigh: Assists with medial rotation of thigh
Psoas Major Sides of t12-L5 Vertebrae and discs between them; transverse processes of all lumbar vertebrae Lesser trochanter of femur Anterior rami of Lumbar L1 L2 Act conjointly in flexing thigh at hip joint and in stabilising this joint
Psoas Minor Sides of T12-L1 vertebrae and intervertebral discs Pectineal line, iliopectineal eminence via iliopubic arch Anterior rami of lumbar L1 L2 Act conjointly in flexing thigh at hip joint and in stabilising this joint
Created by: Sophie17