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animals are not humans and findings have limited applications; animals have rights similar to humans Arguments against using animals in research. (2)
appetitive stimulus An event that an organism will seek out.
aversive stimulus An event that an organism will avoid.
baseline The normal frequency of a behavior before some intervention.
because it must control the environment, experimental settings may be quite artificial Limitation of changing-criterion design.
can control genetic makeup, learning history, experimental environment; some research on humans in unethical Advantages of using animals in research. (4)
case study approach A descriptive research approach that involves intensive examination of one or a few individuals.
changing-criterion design A type of single-subject design in which the effect of the treatment is demonstrated by how closely the behavior matches a criterion that is systematically altered.
comparative design A type of control group design in which different species constitute one of the independent variables.
contingency A predictive relationship between two events such that the occurrence of one event predicts the probable occurrence of the other.
control group design A type of experiment in which subjects are randomly assigned to either a treatment group or a control group; the experimental group subjects are exposed to a certain treatment, while those in the control group are not.
control group design, single-subject design types of experimental designs (2)
covert behavior Behavior that can be subjectively perceived only by the person performing the behavior, e.g., thoughts and feelings.
cumulative recorder A device that measures total number of responses over time and provides a graphic depiction of the rate of behavior.
dependent variable That aspect of an experiment that is allowed to freely vary to determine if it is affected by changes in the independent variable.
deprivation The prolonged absence of an event that tends to increase the appetitiveness of that event.
descriptive research Research that focuses on describing the behavior and the situation within which it occurs.
duration The length of time that an individual repeatedly or continuously performs a certain behavior.
establishing operation A procedure that affects the appetitiveness or aversiveness of a stimulus.
functional relationship The relationship between changes in an independent variable and changes in a dependent variable; a cause-and-effect relationship.
independent variable That aspect of an experiment that is made to systematically vary across the different conditions in an experiment.
intensity The force or magnitude of a behavior.
interval recording The measurement of whether or not a behavior occurs within a series of continuous intervals.
latency The length of time required for a behavior to begin.
multiple-baseline design A type of single-subject design in which a treatment is instituted at successive points in time for two or more persons, settings, or behaviors.
naturalistic observation A descriptive research that involves the systematic observation and recording of behavior in its natural environment.
naturalistic observation, case study common descriptive methods (2)
no control of variables; it's difficul to specify which variables influence which behavior Limitations of naturalistic observations and case studies. (2)
overt behavior Behavior that has the potential for being directly observed by an individual other than the one performing the behavior.
rate of response The frequency with which a response occurs in a certain period of time.
requires many subjects; averaging across subjects ignores effects on individuals; results are interpreted at the end so ongoing effects may be missed; in comparative control group studies, species can differ in more than one way, limiting comparisons Limitations of control group designs. (4)
response A particular instance of a behavior.
reversal design (ABA or ABAB) A type of single-subject design that involves repeated alternations between a baseline period and a treatment period.
satiation The prolonged exposure to (or consumption of) an event that tends to decrease the appetitiveness of that event.
simple-comparison design (AB) A type of single-subject design in which behavior in a baseline condition is compared to behavior in a treatment condition.
simply monitoring behavior may induce change (reactive effect); results may be consistent but provide no strong evidence for the treatment's effect. Limitations of single-subject design. (2)
single-subject design A research design that requires only one or a few subjects in order to conduct an entire experiment.
spatial contiguity The extent to which events are situated close to each other in space.
speed The amount of time required to perform a complete episode of a behavior from start to finish.
stimulus Any event that can potentially influence behavior.
temporal contiguity The extent to which events occur close together in time.
time-sample recording The measurement of whether or not a behavior occurs within a series of discontinuous intervals.
to generalize, requires more than one person, setting, or behavior; the treatment may generalize across settings and behaviors before a new setting or behavior is applied Limitations of multiple-baseline design. (2)
topography The physical form of a behavior.
two-treatment reversal design (ABCAC) A reversal design in which one treatment is followed by another treatment, then by baseline, then by the second treatment to confirm its effectiveness.
variable A characteristic of a person, place, or thing that can change over time or from one situation to another.
do not have to withdraw treatment to see if it is effective Advantage of the multiple-baseline design.
Created by: Moody