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Learning-chapter 7

QuestionAnswer
A relatively permanent behavior change due to experience. Learning
Learning that certain events occur together. Associative Learning
A type of learning in which one learns to link two or more stimuli and anticipate events. Classical Conditioning
The view that psychology should be an objective science that studies behavior without reference to mental processes. Behaviorism
In classical conditioning, the unlearned, naturally occurring response to the unconditioned stimulus. Unconditioned Response
In classical conditioning, the learned response to a previously neutral stimulus. Conditioned Response
In classical conditioning, a stimulus that unconditionally triggers a response. Unconditioned Stimulus
In classical conditioning, an originally irrelevant stimulus that, after association with an unconditioned stimulus, comes to trigger a conditioned response. Conditioned Stimulus
In classical conditioning, the initial stage, when one links a neutral stimulus and an unconditioned stimulus so that the neutral stimulus begins triggering the conditioned response. Acquisition
A procedure in which the conditioned stimulus in one conditioning experience is paired with a new neutral stimulus, creating a second conditioned stimulus. Higher-Order Conditioning
The diminishing of a conditioned response; occurs in classical conditioning when an unconditioned stimulus does not follow a conditioned stimulus; occurs in operant conditioning when a response ins no longer reinforced. Extinction
The reappearance, after a pause, of an extinguished conditioned response. Spontaneous Recovery
The tendency, once a response has been conditioned, for stimuli similar to the conditioned stimulus to elicit similar responses. Generalization
In classical conditioning, the learned ability to distinguish between a conditioned stimulus and stimuli that do not signal an unconditioned stimulus. Discrimination
Behavior that occurs as an automatic response to some stimulus. Respondent Behavior
A type of learning in which behavior is strengthened if followed by a reinforcer or diminished if followed by a punisher. Operant Conditioning
Behavior that operates on the environment, producing consequences. Operant Behavior
Thorndike's principle that behaviors followed by favorable consequences become more likely, and that behaviors followed by unfavorable consequences become less likely. Law of Effect
In operant conditioning research, a chamber containing a bar or key that an animal can manipulate to obtain a food or water reinforcfer. Operant Chamber
An operant conditioning procedure in which reinforcers guide behavior toward closer and closer approximations of the desired behavior. Shaping
In operant conditioning, any event that strengthens the behavior it follows. Reinforcer
Increasing behaviors by presenting positive stimuli, such as food. A positive reinforcer is any stimulus that, when presented after a response, strengthens the response. Positive Reinforcement
Increasing behaviors by stopping or reducing negative stimuli, such as shock. A negative reinforcer is any stimulus that, when removed after a response, strengthens the response. Negative Reinforcement
An innately reinforcing stimulus, such as one that satisfies a biological need. Primary Reinforcers
A stimulus that gains its reinforcing power through its association with a primary reinforcer. Conditioned Reinforcers
Reinforcing the desired response every time it occurs. Continuous Reinforcement
Reinforcing a response only part of the time; results in slower acquisition of a response but much greater resistance to extinction than does continuous reinforcement. Partial Reinforcement
In operant conditioning, a reinforcement schedule that reinforces a response only after a specified number of responses. Fixed-Ratio Schedule
In operant conditioning, a reinforcement schedule that reinforces a response after an unpredictable number of responses. Variable-Ratio Schedule
In operant conditioning, a reinforcement schedule that reinforces a response only after a specified number of responses. Fixed-Interval Schedule
In operant conditioning, a reinforcement schedule that reinforces a response at unpredictable time intervals. Variable-Interval Schedule
An event that decreases the behavior that it follows. Punishment
A mental representation of the layout of one's environment. Cognitive Map
Learning that occurs but is not apparent until there is an incentive to demonstrate it. Latent Learning
A desire to perform a behavior effectively effectively for its own sake. Intrinsic Motivation
A desire to perform a behavior to receive promised rewards or avoid threatened punishment. Extrinsic Motivation
Learning by observing others. Observational Learning
The process of observing and imitating a specific behavior. Modeling
Frontal lobe neurons that fire when performing certain actions or when observing another doing so. Mirror Neurons
Positive, constructive, helpful behavior. Prosocial Behavior
Created by: tyler malone