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Learning KLB

Chapter 7

QuestionAnswer
A relatively permanent behavior change due to experience. Learning
Learning that certain events occur together. Associative Learning
A type of learning in which one learns to link two or more stimuli and anticipate events. Classical Conditioning
The view that psychology (1) should be an objective science that (2) studies behavior without reference to mental processes. Most Research psychologists today agree with (1) but not with (2). Behaviorism
I classical conditioning, the unlearned, naturally occurring response to the unconditioned stimulus (US), such as salivation when food is in the mouth. Unconditioned Response (UR)
in classical conditioning, a stimulus that unconditionally- naturally and automatically- triggers a response. Unconditioned Stimulus (US)
in classical conditioning, the learned response to a previously neutral (but now conditioned) stimulus (CS). Conditioned Response (CR)
in classical conditioning, an originally irrelevant stimulus that, after association with unconditioned stimulus (US), comes to trigger a conditioned response. Conditioned Stimulus (CS)
initial learning, of the stimulus-response relationship. Acquisition
new neutral stimulus can become a new conditioned stimulus. Higher-order Conditioning
The diminishing of a conditioned response, response is no longer reinforced. Extinction
the reappearance, after a pause, of an extinguished conditioned response. Spontaneous recovery
the tendency, once a response has been conditioned, for stimuli similar to the conditioned stimulus to elicit similar responses. Generalization
the learned ability to distinguish between a conditioned stimulus and stimuli that do not signal an unconditioned stimulus. Discrimination
behavior that occurs as an automatic response to some stimulus. Respondent Behavior
a type of learning in which behavior is strengthened if followed by a reinforcer or diminished if followed by a punisher. Operant Conditioning
behavior that operates on the environment, producing consequences. Operant Behavior
Thorndike's princible that behaviors followed by favorable consequences become more likely, and that behaviors followed by unfavorable consequences become less likely. Law Effect
a chamber containing a bar or key that an animal can manipulate to obtain a food or water reinforcer; attached devices record the animal's rate of bar pressing or key pecking. Operant Chamber (Skinner Box)
reinforcers guide behavior toward closer and closer approximations of the desired behavior. Shaping
strengthens behavior it follows. Reinforcer
increasing behaviors by presenting positive stimuli, such as food.when presented after a response, it strengthens the response. Positive Reinforcement
increasing behavior by stopping or reducing negative stimuli, such as shock. Negative Reinforcement
an innately reinforcing stimulus, such as one that satisfies a biological need. Primary Reinforcers
a stimulus that gains its reinforcing power through its association with a primary reinforcers; also known as a secondary reinforcer. Conditioned Reinforcers
reinforcing the desired response every time it occurs. Continuous Reinforcement
reinforcing a response only part of the time; results in slower acquisition of a response but much greater resistance to extinction than does continuous reinforcement. Partial (Intermittent) Reinforcement
a reinforcement schedule that reinforces a response only after a specified number of responses. Fixed-Ratio schedule
a reinforcement schedule that reinforces a response after an unpredictable number of responses. Variable-ratio schedule
a reinforcement schedule that reinforces a response only after a specified time has elapsed. Fixed-interval Schedule
a reinforcement schedule that reinforces a response at unpredictable time intervals. Variable-interval Schedule
an event that decreases the behavior that it follows. Punishment
a mental representation of the layout of one's environment. Cognitive map
learning that occurs but is not apparent until there is an incentive to demonstrate it. Latent Learning
a desire to perform a behavior effectively for its own sake. Intrinsic Motivation
a desire to perform a behavior to receive promised rewards or avoid threatened punishment. Extrinsic Motivation
learning by observing others. Observational Learning
the process of observing an imitating a specific behavior. Modeling
frontal love neurons that fire when performing certain actions or when observing another doing so. the brain's mirroring of another's action may enable imitation and empathy. Mirror Neurons
positive, constructive, helpful behavior. the opposite of antisocial behavior. Prosocial Behavior
Created by: Katherine Burr