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PATH Ch 5 ABD/GI

Pathology Chapter 5: Abdomen & GI System

PathologyClassifications
esophageal atresia (type/cause) Congenital Caused by: cell differentiation of the trachea and esophagus during fetal development
esophageal atresia (s/s, ra) Signs/Symptoms: cyanosis, dysphagia, gagging Radiographic Appearance: --------
esophageal atresia (dx, tx, px) Diagnosis: Ba swallow, inability to pass NG tube Treatment: Sx Prognosis: good w/ treatment
ileal atresia (type/cause) Congenital Caused by: cell differentiation of the ileum during fetal development
ileal atresia (s/s, ra) Signs/Symptoms: inability to pass stomach contents, abdominal distention Radiographic Appearance: ---------
ileal atresia (dx, tx, px) Diagnosis: sm bowel study Treatment: Sx Prognosis: good w/ treatment
duodenal atresia (type/cause) Congenital Caused by: failure of the duodenum to form during fetal development
duodenal atresia (s/s, ra) Signs/Symptoms: vomiting, abdominal distention Radiographic Appearance: double bubble
duodenal atresia (dx, tx, px) Diagnosis: fetal US, Ba studies Treatment: Sx Prognosis: good w/ treatment
colon atresia (type/cause) Congenital Caused by: incomplete colon, lack of anus (usually in the sigmoid)
colon atresia (s/s, ra) Signs/Symptoms: obstruction Radiographic Appearance: -------
colon atresia (dx, tx, px) Diagnosis: Ba studies Treatment: Sx Prognosis: good w/ treatment
imperforate anus /anal agenesis (type/cause) Congenital Caused by: malformed anal opening; fistula may form between the colon and the urethra in boys or between the colon and the vagina in girls
imperforate anus /anal agenesis (s/s, ra) Signs/Symptoms: obstruction Radiographic Appearance: ----------
imperforate anus /anal agenesis (dx, tx, px) Diagnosis: Ba studies Treatment: Sx Prognosis: good w/ treatment
hypertrophic pyloric stenosis (type/cause) Congenital (more common in males) Caused by: narrowing of the pylorus
hypertrophic pyloric stenosis (s/s, ra) Signs/Symptoms: vomiting, failure to gain weight Radiographic Appearance: -------
hypertrophic pyloric stenosis (dx, tx, px) Diagnosis: Upper GI Study Treatment: Sx Prognosis: good w/ treatment
malrotation (type/cause) Congenital Caused by: intestines not in normal positions, pinched off
malrotation (s/s, ra) Signs/Symptoms: vomiting, bowel obstruction Radiographic Appearance: ----------
malrotation (dx, tx, px) Diagnosis: sm bowel study Treatment: Sx Prognosis: GWT
situs inversus (type/cause) Congenital Caused by: organs form on the wrong side of the body
situs inversus (s/s, ra) Signs/Symptoms: none Radiographic Appearance: ------
situs inversus (dx, tx, px) Diagnosis: accidental finding Treatment: none Prognosis: -------
Hirschsprung disease (type/cause) Congenital (affects more men) Caused by: absence of neurons in the sigmoid wall
Hirschsprung disease (s/s, ra) Signs/Symptoms: distended abdomen, severe constipation, fecal impactions Radiographic Appearance: ---------
Hirschsprung disease (dx, tx, px) Diagnosis: BE Treatment: Sx Prognosis: GWT
Meckel diverticulum (type/cause/+-) Congenital Caused by: malformation between the ileum and the umbilicus; diverticulum in the distal ileum
Meckel diverticulum (s/s, ra) Signs/Symptoms: vomiting, cramping, bowel obstruction Radiographic Appearance: ------
Meckel diverticulum (dx, tx, px) Diagnosis: NM (difficult to see radiographically) Treatment: Sx Prognosis: GWT
gluten-sensitive enteropathy (type/cause) Congenital (Hereditary) Caused by: autoimmune disorder
gluten-sensitive enteropathy (s/s, ra) Signs/Symptoms: diarrhea, weight loss, abdominal distention Radiographic Appearance: mucosal changes
gluten-sensitive enteropathy (dx, tx, px) Diagnosis: clinical, Sm bowel study Treatment: no gluten diet Prognosis: ----------
esophageal strictures (type/cause) Inflammatory Caused by: narrowing of the esophagus (ingestion of harmful household materials i.e. cleaners)
esophageal strictures (s/s, ra) Signs/Symptoms: edema (swelling), perforation Radiographic Appearance: -------
esophageal strictures (dx, tx, px) Diagnosis: endoscopy, Ba swallow, esophagram Treatment: dilation Prognosis: GWT
reflux esophagitis (type/cause) Inflammatory Caused by: gastroesophageal reflux (GERD), malfunction of the cardiac sphincter
reflux esophagitis (s/s, ra) Signs/Symptoms: heart burn, chest pain, bad breath Radiographic Appearance: --------
reflux esophagitis (dx, tx, px) Diagnosis: pH monitoring, Ba swallow, UGI study Treatment: antacids, elevate head while sleeping Prognosis: GWT
peptic ulcer (type/cause) Inflammatory gastric (lesser curve) and duodenum (duodenal bulb) Caused by: erosion of the mucosal lining, NSAIDS, H. pylori
peptic ulcer (s/s, ra) Signs/Symptoms: gastric: epigastric & abdominal pain duodenum: pain in the mid-morning that goes away after eating (returns in 2-3 hrs) Radiographic Appearance: ---------
peptic ulcer (dx, tx, px) Diagnosis: UGI endoscopy Treatment: drug therapy, acid blockers (omeprazole) Prognosis: GWT
gastroenteritis (type/cause) Inflammatory Caused by: inflammation of the stomach & sm bowel due to: alcohol, NSAIDS, food allergies, viruses, etc
gastroenteritis (s/s, ra) Signs/Symptoms: diarrhea, vomiting, fever Radiographic Appearance: --------
gastroenteritis (dx, tx, px) Diagnosis: clinical Treatment: treat symptoms Prognosis: --------
regional enteritis aka Crohn's disease (type/cause) Inflammatory Caused by: unknown etiology; usually in the lower ileum
regional enteritis aka Crohn's disease (s/s, ra) Signs/Symptoms: diarrhea, bloody stools, fatigue Radiographic Appearance: string sign
regional enteritis aka Crohn's disease (dx, tx, px) Diagnosis: CT, Sm bowel study Treatment: medication, Sx Prognosis: GWT
appendicitis (type/cause) Inflammatory Caused by: inflammation of the appendix
appendicitis (s/s, ra) Signs/Symptoms: fever, severe RLQ pain Radiographic Appearance: -------
appendicitis (dx, tx, px) Diagnosis: CT Treatment: appendectomy Prognosis: GWT
ulcerative colitis (type/cause/+-) Inflammatory Caused by:
ulcerative colitis (s/s, ra) Signs/Symptoms: Radiographic Appearance:
ulcerative colitis (dx, tx, px) Diagnosis: Treatment: Prognosis:
abnormally dilated veins in the esophagus (type/cause/+-) Esophageal Varices Caused by:
abnormally dilated veins in the esophagus (s/s, ra) Signs/Symptoms: Radiographic Appearance:
abnormally dilated veins in the esophagus (dx, tx, px) Diagnosis: Treatment: Prognosis:
herniation (type/cause/+-) Degenerative Caused by:
herniation (s/s, ra) Signs/Symptoms: Radiographic Appearance:
herniation (dx, tx, px) Diagnosis: Treatment: Prognosis:
hiatal hernia (type/cause/+-) Degenerative Caused by:
hiatal hernia (s/s, ra) Signs/Symptoms: Radiographic Appearance:
hiatal hernia (dx, tx, px) Diagnosis: Treatment: Prognosis:
mechanical (type/cause/+-) Bowel Obstruction Caused by:
mechanical (s/s, ra) Signs/Symptoms: Radiographic Appearance:
mechanical (dx, tx, px) Diagnosis: Treatment: Prognosis:
intestinal obstructions (type/cause/+-) Bowel Obstruction Caused by:
intestinal obstructions (s/s, ra) Signs/Symptoms: Radiographic Appearance:
intestinal obstructions (dx, tx, px) Diagnosis: Treatment: Prognosis:
paralytic (type/cause/+-) Bowel Obstruction Caused by:
paralytic (s/s, ra) Signs/Symptoms: Radiographic Appearance:
paralytic (dx, tx, px) Diagnosis: Treatment: Prognosis:
achalasia (type/cause/+-) Neurogenic Caused by:
achalasia (s/s, ra) Signs/Symptoms: Radiographic Appearance:
achalasia (dx, tx, px) Diagnosis: Treatment: Prognosis:
Zenckers diverticulum (type/cause/+-) Diverticular Caused by:
Zenckers diverticulum (s/s, ra) Signs/Symptoms: Radiographic Appearance:
Zenckers diverticulum (dx, tx, px) Diagnosis: Treatment: Prognosis:
colonic diverticula (type/cause/+-) Diverticular Caused by:
colonic diverticula (s/s, ra) Signs/Symptoms: Radiographic Appearance:
colonic diverticula (dx, tx, px) Diagnosis: Treatment: Prognosis:
cancer of the esophagus (type/cause/+-) Neoplastic 1.7% of cancers in the GI system; mostly in the lower third of the esophagus Caused by:
cancer of the esophagus (s/s, ra) Signs/Symptoms: Radiographic Appearance:
cancer of the esophagus (dx, tx, px) Diagnosis: Treatment: Prognosis:
stomach cancer (type/cause/+-) Neoplastic 95% are malignant adenocarcinoma; develop in the pyloric and lesser curve Caused by:
stomach cancer (s/s, ra) Signs/Symptoms: Radiographic Appearance:
stomach cancer (dx, tx, px) Diagnosis: Treatment: Prognosis:
small bowel neoplasm (type/cause/+-) Neoplastic very rare less than 5%; most occur in the duodenum and the jejunum Caused by:
small bowel neoplasm (s/s, ra) Signs/Symptoms: Radiographic Appearance:
small bowel neoplasm (dx, tx, px) Diagnosis: Treatment: Prognosis:
colonic polyps (type/cause/+-) Neoplastic tissue that protrudes into the lumen; considered precancerous; close observation Caused by:
colonic polyps (s/s, ra) Signs/Symptoms: Radiographic Appearance:
colonic polyps (dx, tx, px) Diagnosis: Treatment: Prognosis:
colon cancer (type/cause/+-) Neoplastic 3rd most common tumor in the US; 1:20 will develop; family hx; most occur in the rectal sigmoid area; very treatable Caused by:
colon cancer (s/s, ra) Signs/Symptoms: Radiographic Appearance:
colon cancer (dx, tx, px) Diagnosis: Treatment: Prognosis:
Created by: Cralie