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Antibiotics

DrugFamilyMechanism
penicillin V -cillin, Beta-Lactams, Natural Penicillins, Narrow G+ coverage, Limited G- activity, Renally excreted unchanged Irreversible inhibition of PBPs that assist in formation and remodeling of bacterial cell wall. Inhibition leads to decreased cell wall synthesis and repair. Lysis due to osmotic pressure.
amoxicillin am- -cillin, Beta-Lactams, Aminopenicillins, Narrow G+ coverage, Enhanced G- activity, Renally excreted unchanged Irreversible inhibition of PBPs that assist in formation and remodeling of bacterial cell wall. Inhibition leads to decreased cell wall synthesis and repair. Lysis due to osmotic pressure.
ampicillin am- -cillin, Beta-Lactams, Aminopenicillins, Narrow G+ coverage, Enhanced G- activity, Renally excreted unchanged Irreversible inhibition of PBPs that assist in formation and remodeling of bacterial cell wall. Inhibition leads to decreased cell wall synthesis and repair. Lysis due to osmotic pressure.
nafcillin -cillin, Beta-Lactams, Antistaphs, Narrow MSSA, Renally excreted unchanged Irreversible inhibition of PBPs that assist in formation and remodeling of bacterial cell wall. Inhibition leads to decreased cell wall synthesis and repair. Lysis due to osmotic pressure.
piperacillin -cillin, Beta-Lactams, Ureidopenicillins, Narrow G+ coverage, Greater G- activity, Renally excreted unchanged Irreversible inhibition of PBPs that assist in formation and remodeling of bacterial cell wall. Inhibition leads to decreased cell wall synthesis and repair. Lysis due to osmotic pressure.
imipenem/cilastatin no root, Beta-Lactams, Carbapenams, Deactivated in kidney but more can be recovered when administered with cilastatin, Not orally active, Gram negative bacilli, anaerobes, and S. aureus Irreversible inhibition of PBPs that assist in formation and remodeling of bacterial cell wall. Inhibition leads to decreased cell wall synthesis and repair. Lysis due to osmotic pressure.
cefazolin cef-, Beta-Lactams, Cephalosporins 1st Gen, G+ cocci, Limited G-, Renally excreted unchanged Irreversible inhibition of PBPs that assist in formation and remodeling of bacterial cell wall. Inhibition leads to decreased cell wall synthesis and repair. Lysis due to osmotic pressure.
cefotaxime cef-, Beta-Lactams, Cephalosporins 3rd Gen, Better G- Renally excreted unchanged Irreversible inhibition of PBPs that assist in formation and remodeling of bacterial cell wall. Inhibition leads to decreased cell wall synthesis and repair. Lysis due to osmotic pressure.
ceftriaxone cef-, Beta-Lactams, Cephalosporins 3rd Gen, Better G- Renally excreted unchanged Irreversible inhibition of PBPs that assist in formation and remodeling of bacterial cell wall. Inhibition leads to decreased cell wall synthesis and repair. Lysis due to osmotic pressure.
cephalexin cef-, Beta-Lactams, Cephalosporins 1st Gen, G+ cocci, Limited G-, Renally excreted unchanged Irreversible inhibition of PBPs that assist in formation and remodeling of bacterial cell wall. Inhibition leads to decreased cell wall synthesis and repair. Lysis due to osmotic pressure.
aztreonam no root, Beta-Lactams, Monobactams, Exclusively used against severe gram negative infections, esp those in the hospital. Irreversible inhibition of PBPs that assist in formation and remodeling of bacterial cell wall. Inhibition leads to decreased cell wall synthesis and repair. Lysis due to osmotic pressure.
amoxicillin/clavulanic acid am- -cillin, Beta-Lactams, Aminopenicillins, Narrow G+ coverage, Enhanced G- activity, Renally excreted unchanged, Clavuanic acid works to inhibit beta-lactamase Irreversible inhibition of PBPs that assist in formation and remodeling of bacterial cell wall. Inhibition leads to decreased cell wall synthesis and repair. Lysis due to osmotic pressure.
piperacillin/tazobactam -cillin, Beta-Lactams, Ureidopenicillins, Narrow G+ coverage, Greater G- activity, Renally excreted unchanged Irreversible inhibition of PBPs that assist in formation and remodeling of bacterial cell wall. Inhibition leads to decreased cell wall synthesis and repair. Lysis due to osmotic pressure.
ciprofloxacin -floxacin, Fluoroquinolones 2nd Gen, Generally well-tolerated, damage to growing cartilage, possible tendonitis Inhibit DNA gyrase in G- (relieves positive supercoiling) and/or topoisomerase IV in G+ (Involved in untying daughter DNA formed during replication). Leaves cell's DNA inaccessible and leads to cell death.
levofloxacin -floxacin, Fluoroquinolones 3rd Gen, Generally well-tolerated, damage to growing cartilage, possible tendonitis Inhibit DNA gyrase in G- (relieves positive supercoiling) and/or topoisomerase IV in G+ (Involved in untying daughter DNA formed during replication). Leaves cell's DNA inaccessible and leads to cell death.
nitrofurantoin no root, Quinolones, Generally well-tolerated, damage to growing cartilage, possible tendonitis Produce reactive oxygen species in bacteria.
sulfamethoxazole sulfa-, Sulfonamide, Bacteriostatic Inhibits dihydropteroate synthase and give a false metabolite.
Trimethoprim / sulfamethoxazole (cotrimoxazole) no root, Combination makes both bactericidal Inhibits dihydrofolate synthase (Tmp) and dihydropteroate synthase (Sulfa).
azithromycin -omycin (for synthesis inhibitors), Protein synthesis inhibitors, Macrolides Bind 23S rRNA at E site, halting translation
clarithromycin -omycin (for synthesis inhibitors), Protein synthesis inhibitors, Macrolides Bind 23S rRNA at E site, halting translation
erythromycin -omycin (for synthesis inhibitors), Protein synthesis inhibitors, Macrolides Bind 23S rRNA at E site, halting translation
fidaxomicin -omycin (for synthesis inhibitors), Protein synthesis inhibitors, Macrolides Bind 23S rRNA at E site, halting translation
doxycycline Protein synthesis inhibitors
chloramphenicol Protein synthesis inhibitors, Bacteriostatic
clindamycin -omycin (for synthesis inhibitors), Protein synthesis inhibitors, Bacteriostatic
gentamicin -omycin (for synthesis inhibitors), Protein synthesis inhibitors, Aminoglycosides Bind 16S ribosomal RNA portion of the bacterial ribosome. Result in blocking of initiation of translation, blocking of further translation once started, and induction of a conformation change that results in the incorporation of incorrect amino acid.
streptomycin -omycin (for synthesis inhibitors), Protein synthesis inhibitors, Aminoglycosides Bind 16S ribosomal RNA portion of the bacterial ribosome. Result in blocking of initiation of translation, blocking of further translation once started, and induction of a conformation change that results in the incorporation of incorrect amino acid.
neomycin -omycin (for synthesis inhibitors), Protein synthesis inhibitors, Aminoglycosides Bind 16S ribosomal RNA portion of the bacterial ribosome. Result in blocking of initiation of translation, blocking of further translation once started, and induction of a conformation change that results in the incorporation of incorrect amino acid.
tobramycin -omycin (for synthesis inhibitors), Protein synthesis inhibitors, Aminoglycosides Bind 16S ribosomal RNA portion of the bacterial ribosome. Result in blocking of initiation of translation, blocking of further translation once started, and induction of a conformation change that results in the incorporation of incorrect amino acid.
linezolid Protein synthesis inhibitors
isoniazid Antimycobacterial, Used for TB, leprosy Inhibition of mycolic acid synthesis, bactericidal for growing forms, bacteriostatic for resting forms.
rifampin Antimycobacterial, Used for TB, leprosy Inhibition of DNA-dependent RNA polymerase, blocking transcription
dapsone Antimycobacterial, Used for leprosy Antifolate, similar to sulfa drugs.
Vancomycin Glycopeptides, Exclusively G+ bacteria (MRSA, MRSE, VRE), No use against G-, Only IV Inhibits bacterial cell wall biosynthesis, binds to a peptide-lined cleft in peptidoglycan.
Metronidazole Parasitic and bacterial infections. ESP c. diff. Unknown, but thought to produce reactive oxygen species.
Polymyxin B Cell wall disrupter, Limited to drug-resistant G- infections Surface-active amphipathic molecules that disrupt plasma membrane
penicillin G -cillin, Beta-Lactams, Natural Penicillins, Narrow G+ coverage, Limited G- activity, Renally excreted unchanged Irreversible inhibition of PBPs that assist in formation and remodeling of bacterial cell wall. Inhibition leads to decreased cell wall synthesis and repair. Lysis due to osmotic pressure.
Created by: carchase