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Learning_3

QuestionAnswer
appetitive conditioning Conditioning procedure in which the US is an event that is usually considered pleasant and that an organism seeks out.
aversive conditioning Conditioning procedure in which the US is an event that is usually considered unpleasant and that an organism avoids.
backward conditioning Conditioning procedure in which the onset of the NS follows the onset of the US.
classical conditioning, Pavlovian conditioning, respondent conditioning A process whereby one stimulus that does not elicit a certain response is associated with a second stimulus that does; as a result, the first stimulus also comes to elicit a response. (3)
conditioned response (CR) The response, often similar to the unconditioned response, that is elicited by the conditioned stimulus.
conditioned stimulus (CS) Any stimulus that, although initially neutral, comes to elicit a response because it has been associated with an unconditioned stimulus.
conditioned suppression, conditioned emotional response (CER) a conditioning procedure that stops or reduces responses to a previously trained conditioning (2)
delayed conditioning Conditioning procedure in which the onset of the NS precedes the onset of the US, and the two stimuli overlap.
dishabituation The reappearance of a habituated response following the presentation of a seemingly irrelevant novel stimulus.
elicited behaviors Behaviors that are automatically drawn out by the stimuli that precede them.
excitatory conditioning Conditioning procedure in which the NS is associated with the presentation of a US.
fixed action pattern, species-specific behavior A fixed sequence of responses elicited by a specific stimulus. (2)
flexion response The automatic response of jerking one's hand or foot away from a hot or sharp object.
habituation A decrease in the strength of an elicited behavior following repeated presentations of the eliciting stimulus.
inhibitory conditioning Conditioning procedure in which the NS is associated with the absence or removal of a US.
interstimulus interval (ISI) In delayed conditioning, the time between the onset of the NS and the onset of the US.
opponent-process theory The theory that an emotional event elicits two competing processes: (1) an a-process (primary process), which elicits (2) a b-process (opponent process) that serves to counteract the a-process.
orienting response The automatic positioning of oneself to facilitate attending to a stimulus.
reactive effect change in behavior resulting from monitoring behavior
reflex A relatively simple, involuntary response to a stimulus.
reflex arc A neural structure that underlies many reflexes and consists of a sensory neuron, an interneuron, and a motor neuron.
responses during CS / responses during CS + responses preceding CS suppression ratio formula
sensitization An increase in the strength of an elicited behavior following repeated presentations of the eliciting stimulus.
sign stimulus, releaser A specific stimulus that elicits a fixed action pattern. (2)
simultaneous conditioning Conditioning procedure in which the onset of the NS and the onset of the US are simultaneous.
startle response A defensive reaction to a sudden, unexpected stimulus, which involves automatic tightening of skeletal muscles and various hormonal and visceral changes.
trace conditioning Conditioning procedure in which the onset and offset of the NS precedes the onset of the US.
trace interval In trace conditioning, the time between the offset of the NS and the onset of the US.
unconditioned response (UR) The response that is naturally elicited by the unconditioned stimulus.
unconditioned stimulus (US) A stimulus that naturally elicits a response.
Created by: Moody