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Psych Test 4 (final)

Adjustment & Maladjustment: pg 660-670 (Lecture 45, Cole)

Somatic symptom disorders (somatoform disorders) Disorders in which people complain of bodily symptoms that cannot be accounted for in terms of actual physical damage or dysfunction.
Pain disorder A somatoform disorder in which the person's compaint of pain cannot be accounted for in terms of physical damage.
Functional neurological symptom disorder (conversion disorder) A somatic symtom disorder in which the patient experiences physical symptoms (ex: lack of feeling in hands), but these symptoms are neurologically impossible; there is no damage to any part of the sensory system.
La belle indifference Often exhibited by people with conversion disorders; a strange lack of concern about their symptom and its implications.
"Glove anasthesia" Loss of all sensation below the wrist. However, the hand is served by nerves that also provide sensory input above the hand, which makes glove anasthesia anatomically impossible.
A predisposition to somatic symptom disorders involve what 2 vulnerabilities? Biological and psychological
What are the 3 forms of dissociative disorders? 1. Dissociative amnesia 2. Dissociative fugue 3. Dissociative identity disorder
Dissociative disorders Disorders that involve a major dissociation of personal identity or memory.
Dissociative amnesia Disorder in which a person responds to a stressful event with extensive but selective memory loss.
Dissociative fugue A dissociative phenomenon in which a person loses all sense of personal identity and wanders to another place and establishes a new identity (often "wakes up" feeling misplaced and lost).
Dissociative identity disorder (DID) A dissociative disorder in which two or more seperate identities or personalities coexist within an individual.
What do you call the main identity of a person within dissociative identity disorder? Host
What do you call the other personalities (ie not the host) within a person with dissociative identity disorder? Alters
How can the several identities of a person with DID differ? Mentally, behaviourally and physiologically. Each can have its own set of memories and behaviours. May or may not know about existence of other personalities. Can differ in age, gender, health differences (ex: allergies), voice changes, etc.
What theory did Putnam develop? Trauma-dissociation theory
Trauma-dissociation theory A theory that accounts for the development of dissociative identity disorder in terms of dissociation as a defence against severe childhood abuse or trauma.
Familial similarities in somatic symptom disorders may be the result of what 2 factors? 1. Biological basis 2. Environmental shaping through attention and sympathy
In what cultures do somatic symptom disorders occur with greater frequency? In cultures that discourage open expression of negative emotions (ex: military)
Dissociative disorders involve what 2 results? Loss of memory and loss of identity
Schizophrenia A psychotic disorder involving serious impairment of attention, thought, language, emotion and behaviour.
A diagnosis of schizophrenia requires what? Evidence that a person misinterprets reality and exhibits disordered attention, thought, or perception.
What are 4 common and noticeable results of schizophrenia? 1. Withdrawal from social interaction 2. Strange or inappropriate communication 3. Neglected personal grooming 4. Disorganized behaviour
Give an example of "delusion of persecution". A schizophrenic person may believe that his brain is being turned to glass by ray guns operated by his enemies from outer space.
Give an example of "delusion of grandeur". A schizophrenic person may believe that Jesus Christ is a special agent of his.
Delusions False beliefs, often involving themes of persecution or grandeur, that are sustained in the face of evidence that normally would be sufficient to destroy them.
Hallucinations False perceptions that have a compelling sense of reality.
"Blunted affect" Manifesting less sadness, joy, and anger than most people.
"Flat affect" Showing almost no emotion at all.
"Inappropriate affect" Displaced behaviour (ex: crying during a comedy, laughing at tragedies, smiling when in pain, ect.)
What are the 4 major subtypes of scizophrenia? 1. Paranoid 2. Disorganized 3. Catatonic (motor disturbances, ex: repetitive movements) 4. Undifferentiated
What are the 2 main categories of schizophrenic reactions? Type I schizophrenia symptoms (posistive symptoms) and Type II schizophrenic symptoms (negative symptoms)
Type I schizophrenia Subtype of schizophrenia characteritzed by a predominance of positive symptoms.
Positive symptoms ( of Type I schizophrenia) Schizophrenic symptoms such as delusions, hallucinations and disordered speech and thinking.
Type II schizophrenia Subtype of schizophrenia characterized by a predominance of negative symptoms.
Negative symptoms (of Type II schizophrenia) Schizophrenic symptoms that reflect a lack of normal reactions, such as emotions or social behaviours.
Negative symptoms of Type II schizophrenia are associated with what (prior history and outcome)? A long history of poor functioning prior to hospitalization. A poor outcome following treatment.
Positive symptoms of Type I schizophrenia are associated with what (prior history and outcome)? Good functioning prior to breakdown. A better prognosis for eventual recovery.
What 3 biological factors are involved in schizophrenia? 1. Genetic predisposition 2. Brain abnormalities 3. Biochemical factors
What 2 brain abnormalities can cause schizophrenia? Brain atrophy (general loss or deterioration of neurons in the cerebral cortex and limbic system) and enlarged ventricles
Dopamine hypothesis View that the symptoms of schizophrenia are produced by overactivity of the dopamine system in areas of the brain that regulate emotional expression, motivated behaviour, and cognitive functioning.
Regression A psychoanalytic defence mechanism in which a person reatreats back to an earlier stage of development in response to stress.
Freud believes that schizophrenia is represents an extreme example of what defense mechanism? Regression
Schizophrenic thought processes may be linked to deficits in what? Deficits in the executive functions of the frontal lobe.
How do environmental factors affect schizophrenia? Stressful life events seem to play a large role in its emergence.
Expressed emotion A family interaction pattern involving criticism, hostility, and overinvolvement that is associated with relapse when formerly hospitalized schizophrenic patients return home.
The prevalence of schizophrenia is highest in what population? Lower socioeconomic populations
Social causation hypothesis Attributes the higher prevalence of schizophrenia to the higher levels of stress that low-income people experience, particularly within urban environments.
Social drift hypothesis As people develop schizophrenia, their personal and occupational functioning deteriorates, so that they drift down the socioeconomic ladder into povertyand migrate to low-cost urban environments.
Created by: jarnol33