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RADR-1317

Radiographic A & P Skeletal System/Lower Leg

QuestionAnswer
Functions of Skeletal System (SS) Support for tissues and organs suspended from skeletal framework
Functions: Protection for vital organs and soft tissue structures, ie. skull/brain, thoracic cage/heart, lungs great vessels
Functions: Movement muscles are anchored to bones and cooperatively produce movement
Functions: Storage for mineral salts, Particularly calcium phosphate ex: osetoporsis
Functions: Hemopoiesis (hee-mo-poy-ee-sis) Hemo=blood; poiesis=to make. Bone marrow aids in the production of Red Blood Celos (RBC) White Blood Cells (WBC) and platelets as well as storage for fat tisue. (small amt)
Skeletal System 2 Major Divisions Axial Skeleton= 80 bonesAppendicular Skeleton = 126 Total 206 Bones
Appendicular Skeleton Includes Upper & Lower Extremities, Shoulder, Pelvic Girdles
Axial Skeleton Includes: Skull, Vertebral Column, Thoracic Cage & Hyoid Bone
STRUCTURE: Name two type of Bone Tissue Compact, Spongy.
STRUCTURE:Compact Bone: Stong, dense, outler layer, Primarily found in the diaphyses (shaft) of long bones
STRUCTURE: 3 Types of Bone Cells Osteoblast-Bone forming CelsOsteoclasts-get rid of waste in boneOsteocytes: Mature bone sites
STRUCTURE: Periosteum The tough, white outermost layer, thin. A membrane that covers a bone, is essential for bone growth, repair and nutrition of the bone
STRUCTURE: Medullary Canal Inner portion of a bone, made up of cancellous bone (spongy). Bone marrow is located w/in the medullary canal & is interspersed between the trabeculae (weblike on radiograph)
STRUCTURE: Marrow Fills spaces of cancellous bone, contains blood cells in various stages of development (osetoblast form), can be red or yellow
STRUCTURE: Red Marrow Site of RBC formation and some WBCs, Adults: sternum, ribs, vertebrae, epiphyses or pelvis. **Impt. for bone biopsy
STRUCTURE: Yellow Marrow Replaces red bone marrow in the adult except in the areas listed (sternum, ribs, vertebrae, ephiphyses or pelvis
DEVELOPMENT OF BONES:Osteblasts Bone forming cells
DEVELOPMENT: Osteoclasts Bone resorbing cells
DEVELOPMENT: Endochondral Ossification (cartlidge into bone) (transforming) The conbined action of osteoblast and osteoclasts "sculpts" bones into their adult shape.
DEVELOPMENT: Diaphysis The Diasphysis of a long bone is its primary center of ossification.
DEVELOPMENT: Epiphyses Growth occurs at the epiphyses, found at each end, secondary center of ossification. The epiphysis is separated from the diaphysis by cartilaginous plate called the EPIPHYSEAL PLATE (radioluscent end of long bone)
DEVELOPMENT: MetaPhysisMeta=change The Metaphysis is found on the diaphyseal side of the epiphyseal plate it is the area of newest growth on the bone. Growth ceases when all epiphyseal cartilage is transformed into bone.Radiograph, it will be more whiter.
CLASSIFICATIONS: Long Bones Long Bones include: Humerus, femur, tibia, viula, radius, ulna, metacarpals, metatarsals, phalanges (2 articulating ends except Distal phalanges 1 art. endd)
CLASSIFICATIONS: Short Bones Short Bones, Includes Carpals, Tarsals
CLASSIFICATIONS: Flat Bones Flat Bones, Scapula, Ribs, Sternum, Bones of the skull vault.
CLASSIFICATIONS: Irregular Bones Irregular Bones include Vertebrae, bones of the skull base.
CLASSIFICATIONS: Sesamoind Bones Sesamoind Bones formed out of the tendon, formed in area with lots of friction, 1 metatrasal phalangeal jt. 1st digit, patella
CLASSIFICATIONS: Wormian Bones stutures of the skull, womain bones fill in the spaces sutures don't meet
LOWER LEG: Tibia Also called the shin bone, much larger than the fibula. On MEDIAL ASPECT of the lower leg and bears most the wt. PROXIMAL END is expanded and inc. medial & laer condyles that articulate w/ the respective condyle of the femur.
LOWER LEG: Tibia TIBIAL PLATEAU-is the smooth, flat proximal surface between the condyles. INTCONDYLOID EMINENCES or TIBIAL SPINES:R 2 sharp projections extending upward from the plateau (torn cart. in knee where attached)
LOWER LEG: Tibia FIBULAR FACET-located on POSTERIOR & LATERAL aspect of the lateral condyle allowing for articulation w/ fibular head forms PROXIMAL TIBIO-FIBULAR JOINT
LOWER LEG: Tibia TIBIAL TUREROSITY-is the rasied roughened area located ANTERIORLY just below the patella.ANTERIOR CRESTor TIBIAL CREST is ridge extending the lenght of tibial diaphysis.
LOWER LEG: Tibia MEDIAL MALLEOLUS(malAyus)-lg. plpable process locagted at the DISTAL end on MEDIAL aspect. FIBULAR NOTCH-sm depression on DISTAL & LATERaspect art.w/ fibula forming the DISTAL TIBIO-FIBULAR JT.
LOWER LEG: Tibia The INFERIOR SURFACE of the tibia is concave and articulates with the trochlea of the TALUS forming the ankle joint. TALO-TIBIA JT.
LOWER LEG: Fibula Called Calf bone, Much smaller than tibia, bears no wt. located LATERAL & slight POSTERIOR aspect of lower leg
LOWER LEG: Fibula Fibular head -located at the proximal end-art. with FIBULAR FACET of TIBIA. FIBULAR NECK-constricted area immediately DISTAL to the head.LATERAL MALLEOLUS-enloarged bony process loc. @ DISTAL end art w/ TALUS @ TALO-FIBULAR JT
LOWER LEG: Femur AKA Thigh Bone. Longest, strongest & heaviest bone in the body, extends from hip to knee. FEMORAL HEAD-lg rounded bony prominence @ PROXIMAL END art. w/ ACETABULUM OF THE PELVIS
LOWER LEG: Femur FOVEA CAPITIS-a small depression on the MEDIAL ASPECT of femoral head allows for ligament attachment FEMORAL NECK-a constricted area just DISTAL to the head-common fx site esp in elderly clients
LOWER LEG: Femur GREATER TROCHANTER (*RADIOGRAPHIC LANDMARK*) very lg bony prominence @ the PROXIMAL end on the lateral aspect. *lies in same plane of the pubic bones**
LOWER LEG: Femur LESSER TROCHANTER-much smaller promince located on MEDIAL ASPECT POSTERIOR both trochanters serve as attachment area for thigh & buttock muscles
LOWER LEG: Femur INTERTROCHANTERIC CREST-prominent ridge located between the trochanters on the POSTERIOR aspect for muscle attachment. INTERTROCHANTERIC LINE-a faint ridge located between trochanter on ANTERIOR ASPECT for muscle attachment. SUPERIMPOSED ONLY SEE CREST
LOWER LEG: Femur FEMORAL CONDYLES- Medial & lateral located DISTALLY articulate with Tibial Condyles respectively. the MEDIAL Condyle is large than the Lateral Condyle
LOWER LEG: Femur PATELLAR SURFACE: Smooth, triangular shaped dperession on ANTERIOR ASPECT located between the femoral condyles. INTERCONDYLOID FOSSA-deep depression between condyles seen on POSTERIOR aspect. the INTERCONDYLOID eminences of the tibia project n2 this sp.
LOWER LEG: Patella AKA Knee cap, small triangular shaped bone, develops in quadriceps tendon. LG SESAMOID BONE in the body.Superior edge called base,pointed inferior surface-Apex POSTERIOR surface has 2 art facets for art w/ condyle of femur
LOWER LEG: Patella 3/4 yr old start to get patella. When leg is sgtraightened the patella can move slightly over the patellar surface. When knee is flexed the patella is locked n2 post. in front of the knee joint by quadriceps tendon
Created by: wawatt