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psych exam 1

Psychology The scientific study of behavior and mental processes. Behavior: Anything we do – talking, sleeping, blinking, reading, etc. -Mental Process: Our private, internal experiences – thoughts, perceptions, feelings, memories, dreams, etc. “the study of the
Psychologist are not licensed medical physicians, psychiatrists can not prescribe drugs
Psychiatrist are licensed medical physicians, psychiatrists can prescribe drugs
Aristotle Stressed the importance of objectivity and reason in studying the self
Hippocrates For melancholia he recommended sobriety, tranquility, exercise and blood-letting if necessary; For hysteria he recommended getting married
Socrates Stated that introspection and reflection resulted in knowledge about the self; Proposed that we satisfied desires through dreams and fantasies; Conceived of the human condition as divided between physical, moral and spiritual realms
Wundt First psychology lab established 1879 -- Sought to discover “Atoms of the mind” -- Identified Elements of Consciousness (e.g., feelings, sensations, ideas
Titchener Student of Wundt- Focused on introspection/trained observers of the self
The Clarks 20th Century; America) - Early AA psychologists ; trained at Columbia University- Known for “Doll Study”
Mary Witon Caulkins (20th century; America) - First female president of the American Psychological Association
Scientific Method Psychologists use the scientific method to construct theories that organize, summarize, and simplify observations, all the while employing critical thinking
Hypothesis Exposure to violent media contributes to increased violent behavior on the part of adolescent males
Operational Definition Specific terms used to describe a construct or outcome (e.g., hunger – three (3) hours of desiring food)
Case Study single person or small group studied
Sample The small group, taken from the population, participating in the research study (* Random sampling; Representative sampling)
Population The entire group being studied
Naturalistic Research Collecting data on that, which already exists (Do children who grow up in single-parent households perform less well academically as compared to children who grow up in two-parent households?)
Experimental Research Collecting data after running an experiment (Do children who attend same-sex classes perform better academically than children who attend co-ed classes?)
Bind and Double Blind Experiments neither the participant nor the experimenter knows which condition the participant is in. This way the participants shouldn’t experience the placebo effect, and will be unable to behave as the researcher expects (participant demand).
Placebo When receiving special treatment or something new affects human behavior.
Consciousness The immediate awareness of mental activity, internal sensations, and external stimuli
Waking Consciousness Focus on a) textbook reading, b) feelings of hunger, c) the smell of something cooking, d) rage towards another, etc.
Attention The capacity to selectively focus senses and awareness on particular stimuli or aspects of the environment (usually occurring during waking consciousness)
Sleep A condition of body and mind that typically recurs for several hours every night, in which the nervous system is relatively inactive, the eyes closed, the muscles relaxed, and waking consciousness practically suspended
Circadian Rhythm A cycle that helps to determine sleep patterns, dependent on a regular bodily rhythm that occurs over a 24-hour period(i.e., Ebbs and flows of heart rate, hormone secretion, mental alertness, etc)
Non-REM Sleep (Stages 1 – 4) and REM Sleep (Stage 4) First four (4) stages of sleep, during which a person falls into progressively deeper stages of sleep, as the voluntary nervous system shuts down (Stage 1 – Easily Awakened; Stage 4 – Difficult to wake); 50-70 minutes
Dreams An unfolding sequence of perceptions, thoughts, and emotions during sleep (Note: People usually have four or five dreaming episodes per night)
Manifest v. Latent Content The manifest content is the actual literal subject matter of the dream while the latent content is the underlying meaning of these symbols.
Psychoactive Substances A drug that alters consciousness, perception, mood and behavior
Tolerance Repeated exposure to a drug results in its lessened effect; thus it takes greater quantities to get the desired effect
Physical Dependence A condition in which a person has a physically adapted to a drug, so that he or she must take the drug to avoid withdrawal symptoms
Depressants Reduce function/activity in parts of brain; Reduce feelings of anxiety or panic; Ex: alcohol, sleeping pills
Stimulants Increases physical or mental speed and function; Ex: cocaine, caffeine, nicotine
Opiates Reduce sensations of pain (can also give euphoric high); Ex: heroin, morphine, codeine
Hallucinogens Cause changes in perceptions, thought and mood; Ex: marijuana, LSD, Ecstasy
Basic v. Applied Research In the lab v. real world
Law of large numbers The larger the sample size, the more accurate the results
Validity The ability to identify or measure the variables or constructs that the study proposes to identify or measure
selective Attention That, which receives our primary attention at any given moment (e.g., the cocktail party effect demonstrates how we can engage in one stream of speech while ignoring others)
Dual Processing The ability to attend to two stimuli at *nearly the same time, on separate conscious levels (Note: True multi-tasking is largely a myth; see dangers of driving and talking on the cell phone)
Sports psychologists help athletes refine their focus on competition goals, become more motivated, and learn to deal with the anxiety and fear of failure that often accompany competition. (MS, PhD)
Neuropsychology study the relation between the brain and behavior. They often work in stroke and head injury programs. (
Industrial / Organizational Psychology apply psychological principles and research methods to the workplace in the interest of improving productivity and the quality of work-life. (M
Insomnia A persistent inability to fall asleep.
Narcolepsy Overpowering urge to fall asleep that may occur while talking or standing up.
Sleep apnea: Failure to breathe when asleep.
Night terrors: The sudden arousal from sleep with intense fear accompanied by physiological reactions which occur during Stage 4 sleep.
Created by: Virajasaur