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Classical Myth 4-8

xenia "sacred hospitality", Zeus is the god of hospitality
Chaos "yawn" or "chasm", primordial gap from which the world emerged
Gaia "earth", foundation for all that is, Mother Earth
Uranus "sky", son of Gaia, sleeps with Gaia, hated offspring and kept them trapped in the womb, genitals chopped off by his son Cronos, separation
Eros "sexual love" or "attraction, necessity of desire in creation, primordial element of desire
Titans (12) Children of Gaia and Uranus, waged war on Zeus and other Gods, lost and were trapped
Cyclopes (3) One-eyed monsters, children of Gaia and Uranus, smiths of the gods
Hecatoncheires (3) "Hundred-handers", children of Gaia and Uranus
Okeanus Titan, represents Ocean
Rheia wife of Cronus, tricks him to save life of Zeus
Helius Sun-god, Son of Hyperion (titan)
Eos/Aurora "dawn", daughter of Hyperion (titan)
Phaethon Son of Helius and Clymene, asks Helius if he can drive the chariot of the sun to prove Helius is his father, loses control, falls into River Po
Selene/Luna "moon", daughter of Hyperion
Erinyes "the Furies", born of the blood of Uranus' severed genitals, female spirits who haunt anyone who has sheds kindred blood
Giants "Earthborn ones", born of the blood of Uranus' genitals, enormous strength and unbridled violence
Titanomachy "Battle of the Titans", Titans attacked Olympus, defeated with help of the Hecatoncheires, Zeus banished Titans to Tartarus
Chronus Son of Gaia and Uranus, severed Uranus' genitals freeing trapped siblings, becomes king of next generation of gods, marries Rhea, defeated by Zeus
Giantomachy "Battle of the Giants", Giants attack Olympians, defeated with help of Hercules, last to be overcome
Enuma Elish Babylonian poem, "When on high", creation account
Minonan, Indo-Europeans, Mycenaean Culture which centers around bulls and sea,
Linear B First decipherable written language,syllabary (based on syllables, not letters), used for record keeping
Typhaeos Dragon monster fought by Zeus, banished to Mount Etna which still smokes
Anthropomorphic Greeks portrayed gods as men and women who think and act like human beings. Like us, with similar powers, but in greater abundance.
Zeus/Jupiter King of Gods, main attribute is irresistible power, upheld customary ways of Greek society, protected xenia, celebrated for numerous consorts and sexual exploits
Aphrodite/Venus Embodies the overwhelming power of human sexual attraction, The severed genitals of Uranus were thrown into the sea and Aphrodite is born of the foam
Ares/Mars Embodiment of war and battle, personifies blood lust, Best known for myths regarding adultery with Aphrodite
Prometheus Made humans from primeval earth and water, shared knowledge with mortals (especially fire which he stole from the heavens) Tried to trick Zeus (as in successional myth) by wrapping white bones in fat, mythical etiology of detail of sacrifice
Poseidon/Neptune Lord of the deep, dangerous and unpredicatable, god of earthquakes, brother of Zeus
Eponymous "Giving ones name to something" Hellen gave his name to Hellenes, Dorus to the Dorians, Aeolus to the Aeolians, ect,
Clotho, Lachesis, Atropos spinner, apportioner, cuts it off Fates, daughters of Zeus
Ananke Personification of destiny and fate, depicted with a spindle, mother of the Moirai
Sibyl, Daphne, Cassandra Apollo's unsuccessful love affairs: Given as many years of life as grains of sand she could grab, but not given youth. Transforms into laurel tree to evade Apollo. Given gift of always being correct in her prophecies, but no one believes her.
Hermes/Mercury Protector of travelers, thieves, and merchants; functioned as "soul guide" or psychopompos Invented the lyre, opposite of Apollo, represented Kakoi (or uncivilized)
Pygmalion King of Cyprus, disgusted by human wickedness so he carved the perfect woman from marble. When he prayed she would come to life Aphrodite granted prayer.
Psychopomos "Soul Guide", function of Hermes to lead the dead into the House of Hades
Erebos Primordial darkness, darkness or shadow
Hesiod, Homer Authors who recorded much of the myths which we have today. Theogony, Homeric Hymns
Mnemosyne "Memory", mother of the Muses with Zeus
Eileithyia divine midwife, assisted Leto in birthing Apollo
Tethys Titaness of ocean and sea
Apollo prophecy, healing, order and civilization, and aristocracy; bow, arrow, and lyre Born on Delos, only island that would allow Leto to give birth there, promised a great temple would be built there Delphi- temple established by Apollo for his prophecies
Hestia/Vesta hearth,Cronus and Rhea (first swallowed, last regurgitated), protectress of the home, defined internal space of the female world, Vesta (roman counterpart) was chief symbol of city of Rome
Hades/Pluto the invisible, son of Cronus and Rhea, Did not live on Olympus, lived with unseen dead in Undwerworld
Epimetheus after-thinker, son of Iapetos, Husband of Pandora, brother of Prometheus Warned not to accept any gift from the Gods, foolishly accepted Pandora as his wife
Deucalion, Pyrrha Prometheus and Titaness,Only mortals who survived the Great Flood, repopulated the earth by throwing stones (Gaea's bones) in their footprints, Served as model for all following humanity, pious
Aegis Goat skin, symbol of Zeus
Ganymede Trojan prince, Zeus fell in love with him, kidnapped him and took him to Olympus to be the cup bearer of the Gods
Europa Seduced by Zeus in the form of a bull
Charites/Gratiae Graces, daughter of Zeus and Eurynome, Feminine qualities that make young women attractive to men, Often accompany Aphrodite
Delphi temple established by Apollo for his prophecies which are communicated through Pythia (named from Pytho, dragon defeated by Apollo)
Pan to feed, son of Hermes and nymph Dryope Concerned with pastures and fertility Only part human, lecherous
Actaeon Victim of Artemis for his sexual transgression, came upon the goddess bathing in a spring, was punished by being turned into a stag who was hunted down by his own dogs
Asclepius Greek god of medicine, son of Apollo, raised by centaur, conceived from mortal who was destroyed after betraying Apollo
Hera/Juno Goddess of women and fertility, protected establishment of marriage, wife of Zeus, often infuriated by his infidelity
Artemis/Diana Potnia Theron- mistress of the animals, daughter of Leto and Zeus, Mother goddess who protects youth, both human and animal, virgin goddess, goddess of the hunt,First born of the divine twins, acted as a mid-wife for her mother
Demeter/Ceres de(?)- mother, Mother goddess who oversaw the fruitfulness of agriculture, especially wheat, Closely linked to daughter Persephone
Cupid Companion of Aphrodite, arrows hold sexual abandon
Pandora all-gifted, All Gods contributed, Opened jar which contained all the gifts of the Gods, releasing disease and suffering on mankind, kept Hope trapped in the jar, Formed in order to punish Prometheus and mankind after Prometheus stole fire, origin of woman
Autochthonous Son of Deucalion and Pyrrha
Moirai/Fates Daughters of Zeus and Themis, established the allotment that each mortal recieves in life
Hieros Gamos Marriage between God and Goddess
Hephaistos/Vulcan God of smiths, patron of those who worked with their hands, promoter of civilization and city life Thrown from Olympus by either Zeus or Hera, crippled Greeks viewed artisan class with comtempt, yet relied on them for tools of civilization
Hermaphroditis Boy of remarkable beauty, when a nymph fell hopelessly in love with him she clung to him and refused to let go, fused together into being with male genitals and female breasts
Arachne Boasted that she was a superior weaver to Athena, challenged by the goddess to a weaving contest, turned into a spider as punishment for her boastfulness
Hygeia Daughter of Asclepius, goddess of health, sanitation, and cleanliness
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