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HPsych- Chapter 2:NS

HPsych- Chapter 2

reflex model stimulus--> receptor--> afferent (sensory) neurons--> interneurons (CNS)--> Efferent (motor) neurons--> muscles/glands
All or none law stimulus intensity has no effect on the magnitude of the action potential
Excitatory synapse activates the next cell in line
Inhibitory synapse deactivates the next cell in line
Acetylcholine released by motor neurons to stimulate muscles, blocked by curare and sped up by black widow venom
dopamine arouses many parts of the brain, schizophrenia is caused by an oversensitivity to it and Parkinson's is caused by an insufficient amount
Norepinephrine used by neurons which arouse body and mind, amphetamines (speed) stimulate its release
Endorphins similar in structure to opiates, when released by special brain cells, it disrupts messages from pain receptors, involved in the placebo effect and acupuncture, both terminated by naloxone
somatic nervous system sensory and motor function, primarily of skin and skeletal muscles
autonomic nervous system controls viscera; sensory nerves carry impulses from visceral organs to the medulla and hypothalamus, and motor nerves carry impulses out
Sympathetic nervous system prepares body for vigorous activity; because it expends energy, it is called a catabolic system
Parasympathetic nervous system Controls organs under normal circumstances, and is antagonistic to the sympathetic nervous system; since it conserves energy, it is an anabolic system
spinal cord transmits sensory and motor information to and from the brain and body
Subdivisions of the brain hindbrain, midbrain, forebrain, cerebral cortex
Parts of the hindbrain medulla, pons, cerebellum
medulla vegetative functions including respiration, heart beat, and blood pressure
pons eye movement, chewing, and facial muscle control
cerebellum balance and motor coordination
midbrain auditory and visual relay, reflex, or control functions; controls some motor reactions, reticular system found here
reticular system arousal (sleep/wake) function, runs through the brainstem from the medulla and the thalamus
parts of the forebrain diencephalon, telencephalon
parts of the diencephalon thalamus, hypothalamus
hypothalamus biological functions like eating, sex, etc. and other homeostatic functions (blood pH, water, etc.); helps regulate the endocrine system via the Pituitary gland
thalamus large relay center forwarding sensory input to the cortex and motor output to the body, involved in recognition of sensory stimuli
parts of the telencephalon limbic system, cerebrum
limbic system closely tied to the hypothalamus, involved with controlling emotion and motivation, some learning memory
cerebrum the rest of the forebrain, including an olfactory lobe in some species and left and right cerebral hemispheres, folds and wrinkles found in higher-order animals
Corpus callosum connects the left and right hemispheres and integrates their function
basal ganglia helps organize muscle contractions (Parkinson's affects this structure)
lobes of the cerebral cortex occipital, temporal, parietal, frontal
occipital lobes vision
temporal lobes hearing, some vision and memory, olfaction
parietal lobes sensations like pain, cold, heat, touch, and body movement
frontal lobe back area is the motor cortex controlling body movement, the largest areas of which are devoted to the hands and face; the other parts are involved in processes such as the association of ideas, planning, self-awareness, and emotion
apraxias action disorders, sequential motor actions disrupted, components (like the sequence of walking) are randomly ordered; damage occurs adjacent to the motor area
agnosia perceptual disorders, sensory distortion
visual agnosia visual elements may be recognized but not seen as a recognized whole
prosopagnosia difficulty in face recognition
aphasias language disruption
expressive aphasia may destroy speech or writing, or in less severe cases, produce an apraxia, like verbal disorder where words in a sentence are randomly ordered; caused by injury to Broca's area
receptive aphasia (esp. language aphasia) speech not understood, comprehension suffers as does ability to express a response; other left hemisphere locations in the temporal and parietal lobes may produce this effect after injury, but Wernicke's area seems central
epilepsy causes caused by birth or head injury, nervous system infections, metabolic or nutritional disorders, or no apparent cause.
cerebral palsy chronic, nonprogressive disorder causing lack of muscle control and other symptoms depending on severity
Parkinson's Disease causes caused by progressive degeneration of the basal ganglia, which controls smooth muscle activity. decreased dopamine production may be a factor
cerebral palsy causes Usually caused by oxygen deprivation during birth, severe accident, or physical abuse
epilepsy seizures vary from barely noticeable (spacing out) to violent convulsions
Multiple Sclerosis myelin degenerates from the brain, causing paralysis, sensory problems, and mental deterioration. symptoms may come and go initially, but eventually progress
Myasthenia Gravis defective transmission of signals to muscles, possibly because of a neurotransmitter problem
Huntington's disease hereditary, dominant gene, causing genetically based damage to brain cells and resulting physical and mental deterioration, shows up later in life
Poliomyelitis a virus attacks spinal motor nerves. since higher regions of the cord control upper parts of the body, etc., the location of injury determines the effect (para or quadriplegia)
Paraplegia and Quadriplegia loss of 2 (legs/arms) or 4 (legs and arms incontinence) limbs
adolescence (in a neurological sense) a time of brain development in which by age 16, people have adult information processing and logical reasoning, yet much poorer judgement
Brain's Cognitive Control Network develops from preadolescence to mid-20's, increases impulse control, emotional regulation, foresight, planning ahead, and reasoning
Created by: Jean-O