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Ch. 12 Learning

Learning Outcomes - After studying this chapter, you shall be able to:

12.1 - describe the stages of the sleep cycle and the main characteristics of each stage. Stage 1 NREM - somewhat aware of the surroundings but relaxed; the eyes are usually closed. Alpha waves predominate; lasts a few minutes & occupies 4-5% of total sleep time. Stage 2 NREM-unaware of surroundings but easily awakened. Brain waves are increased in amplitude compared to alpha waves in stage 1 but occur at a lower frequency; occupies 50% of total sleep time Stage 3 NREM - "slow-wave sleep" because of high-amplitude, low-frequency delta waves on EEG; deeper stage of sleep & important for ph
12.2 - explain the mechanism of action of the sedative-hypnotic drugs in relationship to their actions with GABA and the chloride ion channel.
12-3 - describe the adverse effects of barbiturates, the addiction liability, and treatment of barbiturate overdose.12.4
12.4 - explain the mechanism of action of the ben-zodiazepine hypnotics and the pharmacokinetic differences between the short-acting and longer-acting drugs.
12.5 - explain the mechanism of action of eszopiclone, zaleplon, and zolpidem and the advantages of these drugs over barbiturates and benzodiazepines.
12.6 - describe the major pharmacologic effects and adverse reactions of ethyl alcohol.
Created by: jdouglas147



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