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Chapter 1- Myers

Chapter 1; Research Methods and Important people in early psychology

Current definition of Psychology? The scientific study of behavior and mental processes
What is meant by the "school of thought" in psychology? Different ways of approaching studies in psychology
What event is typically used to represent the "birth of psychology" and why is it considered so significant? Wilhelm Wundt, 1879, created a machine to measure reachtion time to him a telegraph key after subject heard a ball hit a platform
What are some speciality areas of psychology? Neuroscience, psychodynamic, cognitive, behavioral
What makes psychology a science? Way of asking and answering questions. Science is rooted in observation. Curiosity, skepticism and humility.
How would a researcher decided whether to conduct a descriptive or and experimental study? They would have to determine if they are trying to observe behavior(desc.) or prove a cause and effect (experi.)
What conclusions can you draw from a descriptive study? You can determine behavior and opinions
Give an example of a correlation study and explain how the result could potentially be misused Parent's abusiveness and their children's later abusiveness, shows us the extent to how things relate, DOES NOT SHOW CAUSATION
What is a operational definition? An operationl definition is a statement of procedures used to define research variables
Explain behaviorism, who is related to it? Watson, effects of environment on the overt behavior of humans and animals
Explain psychodynamic, who is related to it? Freud, the unconscious determinants drive behavior.
Explain humanism, who is related to it? Rogers and Maslow, unique aspects of human experience, people are mostly good.
Explain cognitive psychology the study of mental processes
Explain biological psychology Physiological bases of bahvior in humans and animals
Explain socio-cultural psychology how behavior and thinking vary across situations and cultures
What is naturalistic observation? observing and recording behavior in naturally occuring situations without trying to manipulate or control the situation
What is a case study? Examines one individual in great depth in hopes of revealing things true to all of us.
What is a survey? looks at many cases in depth
What is a correlation study? Measures the extent of how two factors vary with each other
What is the independent variable? Experimental factor that is being manipulated, experimental group
What is the dependent variable? The outcome factor, the variable that may change in response to manipulation
What is the experimental group? The group in the experiment that is exposed to the treatment, independent variable.
What is the control group? Contrasts witht eh experimental condition and services as a comparison for evaluation of the effect of the treatment.
Who is Wilhelm Wundt? What did he do? Known as the "father" of psychology, conducted first psychology experiment in German university in 1879, measured reaction time to hit telegraph key after hearing a ball hit a platform.
Who is John Watson? What did he do? Deveopled Behaviorism, defined psychology "the study of observable behavior" *Later changed*
Who is Sigmund Freud? What did he do? Freudian psychology, unconscious sexual conflicts. Introduced the unconscious
Who is Carl Rogers? What did he do? Humanistic psychology, developed Humanism, potential of healthy people and the individuals's potental for personal growth
Created by: ssteinberg