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Paper Terminology

Study of Paper Industry Terms

TermDefinition
a* Refers to the system used to describe and measure color. a* indicates redness, positive value, and greenness, a negative value
A4A Symbol for standard metric "cut-size" paper that is nominally 20X30 cm or or exactly 2 10X297 mm used as the European (and other parts of the world) standard in place of 81/2X11 inches; is an ISO standard.
abrasive papers Papers covered on one or two sides with abrasive powder.
absorbency Prop of Pulp, Paper or board to retain materials it contacts like liquid, gas and solids 1) In paper, the pro. that causes it to take up liquids or vapors it contacts 2) in Optics the partial absorption of light as it passes thru a transparent material.
absorbent papers Soft, loose felted papers absorb water or chem. No sizing with water repellent, but may have agents to make stronger. Incl blotting, filter, matrix and towel papers & base paper for manuf of veg parchment, artif leather, vulcanizd fiber & other papers
accelerated aging Method of predicting long term character of paper by exposing to an elevated temp and controlled environment of dry and moist heat for a specific time and measure strength
acid free Paper having no acidity and no residual acid producing chems. Papers manuf to a ph or higher than 7.0. These papers may have a alkaline reserve to counteract the harmful effects of aging in an acidic envir.
additive A Mineral, chemical or dye added to pulp and coatings to give it special qualities such opacity
adhesive bound Book binding technique that uses glue to hold each page or signature together to cover of book
AF & PA American Forest and Paper Association. Coordinates many needs of paper industry including: stats relating to production, consumption, exports, imports of paper to raw materials energy, gov regs., forecasts, envir matters and transportation
Against the grain Folding or feeding paper at right angles to the grain direction of the paper
Aging Deterioration of paper properties over time. Sunlight and heat accelerate loss of strength and brightness.
Air Dry Term applied to any pulp and paper sample that has a moisture content in equilibrium wiht the surrounding atmosperic conditions. Air-dry pulps are assummed to contain 10% moisture
Airlaid Paper manuf process where fibers are carried and formed to the structure of paper by air rather Water as in traditional papermaking
Alkaline Fillers Fillers that increase alkaline reaction in water or react with acid. Calcium Carbonate is the most common alkaline filler.
Alkaline Reserve Presence of a component (calcium carbonate) put in paper at a level enough to neutralize harmful effects of acidic environment. ANSI specifications require a min of 2% alkaline reserve.
Alkaline Sizing Same as neutral or acid free sizing. Incorp of internal sizing agents and alkaline fillers in papermaking ingredients to make paper whose ph is above 7.0 at time of sheet formation. Resins are added to the furnish of paper machine to give resist to paper
How are alkaline and acid sizing different Unlike the acid sizing system, alkaline sizing does not use high concentrations of alum to set the size. Common internal Synthetic sizing materials are abbreviated as AKD (alkyl Keten Dimer) or ASA (Alkenyl Succnic Anhydride) Alkaline = betterpermanence
Alkyd Resin Synthetic drying oils made by chemical reaction of various organic acids.
Alpha Cellulose portion of a celulosic material can be filtered out of mixture of fibrous material and 8% sodium hydroxide, after the fibers prev swollen with 17.5% sodium hydrox solution. mostly with cotton or wood fibers.
Alpha Pulp chemically treated wood pulp having > 90% alpha cellulose. ie cellulose that is resistant to 17.5% sodium Hydroxide at 25 degrees celsius
Alum Astrigent crystalline substance, alum sulfate, used in rosin sizing to hold paper fibers together. Puts acid in paper, can also be used to release agent on paper mach. to stop wet webs from sticking to rolls or as a minor alkaline sizing with no ph change
Ansi American Nat Stand Institute, a nationally recognized group who fill the needs for standards. They act as interface between gov and private sec and U.S. and internat bodies for standards.
Anti-Offset Spray In printing, a material (usually dry starch particles) sprayed on to the wet ink film surface to prevent set-off
Antioxidants Agents which retard the action of oxygen in drying oils (chem drying) and other substances subject to oxidation
Antique Finish A very rough uncoated paper finish obtained on paper machine with little wet pressing or machine calendering; can also serve as a prefix to other finishes, implying a rougher than ususal finish, such as antiquevellum.
Antique paper Book paper that has a natural rough finish but good printing surface, valued in book printing for its high volume characteristics. The finish is rougher than eggshell finishes by slightly smoother than those designated as extra bulk grades
Anti-Skinning Agents Materials which retard the skin formation on the surface of drying oil or printing ink. EX. skin formation can develop when a can of oil based paint is left open, with resultant drying on the surface and liquid paint still below "skin"
Apparent Density Apparent weight per unit volume. calc by dividing basis weight by thickness.
Aqueous Coating A Water based coating applied after paper production, either on/off machine. An aqueous coating usually gives a gloss, dull, or matte finish and helps prevent the ink from rubbing off.
Archival Paper Paper with long standing qualities, acid free, lignin free, usually with good color retention. Alkaline paper that will not deteriorate. Must meet nat. standards, no contain any ground wood or unbleached wood fiber. The expected life is over 100 years.
Art Work Original materials, including the illustrations, lettering, charts, color blocks, etc. which are to be reproduced in a printed piece.
Ash Inorganic pigment (mineral) residue after complete combustion (burning off) the organics (cellulose fiber for ex.) from a sheet of paper used as a test to determine the filler content of the paper.
ASTM Abbrev for American Society for Testing & Materials. The develops and publishes consensus standards in many fields
Automatic Density Control An automatic toning control system where the toner layer deposited on the paper is controlled by the copier/printer
Azure The light blue color used in the nomenclature of "laid"and "wove" papers
b* refers to the system used to describe and measue color. b* indicates yellowness, a positive value and blueness a negateive value
Backbone the bond edge of a book also called the spine
Back Cylinder Print an image unintentionally printed on the backside of paper. In offset lithography, a malfunction, where the ink image is transferred from the blanket to the impression cylinder and then to the back side of the next sheet of paper run
Back Lining Paper or fabric adhering to the backbone or spine in a hardcover book
Back Pressure The squeeze pressure between the blanket cylinder and the impression cylinder, usually measured in thousandths of an inch
Backing up Printing the reverse side of the sheet already printed on 1 side. the name given to the process of feeding paper through a press a second time to print on other side
Backtrap Mottle This is the printed surface mottle resulting from improper in tack sequence, with a subsequent color not wet trapping, uniformly on a previous color.
Baking A term given to the procedure of drying coatings onto papers.
Baggy Roll (of paper) roll of nonuniform draw; the wed width does not uniformly spt web tension. slack and tight sections across the width of web caused by stretched portions in paper from a ridge, rope or defect in machine direction.
Bar Codes Machine readable (OCR) preprinted bars used extensively in labeling for automated materials handling, inventory control, POS terminals. Many systems exist-not compatible with each other.
Barrier coat Coating that is applied to the non-printing side of paper to add to the opacity or stability of the paper
Base Paper/Stock Paper made for the further converting by coating, laminating, etc. the paper for coating or other types of finishing incl laminating and consisting mainly of fibers but may have other additives depend on use. EX. coated paper will have filler and sizing.
Basic Size the sheet size (dimensions) of a ream of paper (usually 500 sheets) used to determine basis weight. The generally recognized sheet size from which the basis weight is determined. The basic size of book paper is 25X38 Inches.
Basis Weight Weight per a selected unit of area of a grade of paper. Grams per square meter is used throughout the world. US uses many different types of basis weight designations depending on the type of paper.
Standard Ream Count 500 sheets - This is the basic unit for determining area. Also called substance weight, particularly in the bond or business grades of paper.
Baume' Hydrometer A flotation device used to give the specific graviyt, density and concentration of a solution. Can be expressed in Baume' units.
Bearers Rings of steel at ends of offset print press plate & blanket cyl. that make rolling contact on impression for meshing of drive gears & spt of wide press cyl. Rings are raised above cyl. plane to give fixed base for finding the packing of plate & blanket
Beater Large longitudinally partitioned vat used to mix and mechanically work pulp with other ingredients to make paper.
Beating The mechanical treatment of fibers in water to increase surface area, flexibility and promote bonding when dried.
Bekk Smoothness Smoothness of paper as measured by the Bekk instrument, expressed as the time required for a given volume of air to flow between the measuring surface and the paper surface.
Belt Press Printing press that uses 2 continuous belts for printing books in an inline operations from a paper roll to a delivered book block, ready for binding at the end of the press. Indiv polymer plates for ea. pager are mounted on the belts. Plates are raised
What is the most common belt press? The Cameron
Bible paper Thin printing paper for use in deluxe productions such as Bibles, dictionaries, and high-quality publicity productions
Bill of Lading Transportation term referring to the contract between a supplier and carrier, listing number of packages total weight and address of destination.
Binder material in a coating or ink which holds the coating or ink together and to the paper surface.
Bindery Department in a book manufacturing plant that takes the paper after printing, folds it, collates the signatures and binds them into a finished book. The dept also makes covers
Biochemical Oxygen Demand The amount of dissolved oxygen, measure in parts per million, utilized in the aerobic biochemical oxidation of the decomposable organic matter in facility wastewater.
Blade Coater Device that first applies a surplus coating to a paper web and then evenly levels and distributes it by means of a flexible steel blade
Blade Coating The coating method which used a knife blade to apply a smooth and level, but non-uniform thickness, of coating to the surface of a sheet of paper.
What is the primary coating process Blade Coating
Blade Streak Same a Blade Scratch. Fine line in coated surface in the machine direction. Could be a few feet to hundreds of feet.
True or False: Sometimes blade streaks can be deep enough to sever the paper True
What causes a blade streak? Can be caused by a piece of fiber, dried coating or coating ingredient or other foreign material being caught under the blade for a period of time, during the blade coating operation.
Blanket to Blanket Press An offset lithographic perfecting press that has no impression cylinders; during printing the blanket for one side acts as the impression cylinder for the other side and vice versa. Also called perfecting press unit.
Blanket a fabric coated with rubber or other synthetic material which is clamped around the blanket cylinder and transfers ink from the press plate to the paper.
Bleach An oxidizing or reducing agent used to remove color from pulpso that it has a higher brightness.
Blinding In offset lithography, a condition of the plate where the image has lost its ability to accept and or transfer ink.
Bleaching material or process used to whiten paper pulp; while cellulose fibers are naturally transparent and appear white, wood and staining colorants are in the pulping process giving the fibers a brownish color.
Why are brown bags, brown? They are not bleahed. This is and unbleached kraft paper
How many stages are in the bleaching process 3-7
What materials are used for bleaching? Chlorine, chlorine dioxide, hypochlorites, peroxides or ozone
What are the two oxygen type bleaching materials? Peroxide and ozone
What are the types of bleaching processes for pulp? ECF, Non-ECF, and TCF
Bleed An extra amt of printing image that extends to trim edge of he page. EX. An illus. that extends to 1 or more edges of printed piece usually printed 1/8th " beyond trim edge. Can be a lithographic ink pigment that is dissolved in solution to tint paper.
Blister An undesirable result, occurs when paper arises in rapid expansion of moisture in interior of well sealed sheet when to high drying temp.
When does blistering occur? Most frequently on heat-se web offset printing press.
What causes blistering? Too rapid or too high temp drying or a weak internal bond strength
TPD tons per day
Created by: delorya