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Vitamins & Minerals

VitaminNecessary ForDeficiency may result fromSigns of DeficiencySymptoms of ODCautionsContraindications/InteractionsOther
Vitamin E (Tocopherol) Fat Soluble found in cereals, wheat germ, seeds, nuts, vegetable oils, eggs, meat, poultry normal metabolism protection of eye, skin, liver, breast, muscle, and lung tissue protects RBCs from damage decreasing platelet clumping *treatment protocols for early Alzheimers management alcohol abuse malabsorption syndromes like celiac disease sickle cell anemia premies, low birth weight neonates not firmly established. May show abnormal lab values, like low RBC count (1200 units) can result in bleeding in pts who are on oral anticoagulants or are Vit K deficient taken at lowest dosage necessary epecially when on anticoagulant therapy. Can cause increased risk of bleeding including cerebral hemorrhage excessive use of mineral oil can decrease absorption of Vit E
Vitamin K (Phytonadione)Fat Soluble found in green or leafy vegtables, cabbage, vegetable oil, cheese, eggs, liver absorbed in the small intestine in the presence of bile salts blood clotting. Body does not store, but recycles it malabsorption syndromes like celiac disease, warfarin overdose prolonged use of salicyclates, quinine, long term parenteral nutrition inadequate dietary intake increased clotting time, petechiae and bruising hematuria blood in stool pts receiving anticoagulant therapy must be consistent in the amount of vit K rich foods they eat daily to keep levels of prothrombin and other vit K dependent clotting factors stable
Vitamin B1 (Thiamine) Water Soluble coenzyme used in carbohydrate metabolism found in whole grains, wheat germ, peas, beans, nuts, yeast, meat Normal function of the nervous and cardiovascular system chronic alcoholism and substance abuse malabsorption and liver disease anorexia and constipation constipation and GI upset neuritis, pain and tingling in extremities muscle weakness mental depression
Vitamin B2 (Riboflavin) coenzyme utilized in the metabolism of gluclose, fats, and amino acids Found in milk, eggs, nuts, meats, enriched bread, and green leafy veggies cell growth and metabolism Regulation of certain hormones and formation of RBC chronic alcoholism poor diet glossitis Cheilosis (cracking at the corners of the mouth) Dermatitis Photophobia Vision Loss
Vitamin B6 (Pyridoxine) water soluble coenzyme utilized in the metabolism of carbs, fats, proteins, and amino acids found in meats, fish, poultry, legumes, peanuts, soybeans, bananas chronic alcoholism cirrhosis malabsorption syndrome seizures in infants neuritis, dermatitis peripheral neuropathy overdose in pregnant women can result in newborn with seizures who have developed a need for greater amounts of pyridoxine
Vitamin B12 (Cobalamin, Cyanocobalamin) water soluble found in organ meat, poultry, eggs, milk, cheese. Absorption depends on intrinsic factor, which is normally present in gastric juice maturation of RBC and maintenance of nervous system vegetarian diets gastrectomy or intestinal resections pernicious anemia anemia weakness poor muscle coordination confusion, disorientation paresthesia Interactions-Neomyacin side effects- transient diarrhea, itching, urticaria, anaphylaxis
Vitamin C (Asorbic Acid) Water Soluble considered antioxidant. unstable when exposed to heat or air or combined with alkaline compounds, like an antacid formation of collagen normal teeth, gum, and bone development absorption of Iron Healing of wounds and fractures diet lacking fresh fruits and veg alcoholism infections hemodialysis smokin (Scurvy) muscle weakness cramping sore bleeding gums, loose teeth bruising, dry, scaly skin poor healing side effects of large doses Heartburn abd cramps n&v +uric acid levels +urinary calcium Interactions aspirin- causes elevated blood level of aspirin Iron
Vitamin A (Retinol, Beta Carotene) FAT SOLUBLE processed in the body from the carotene of - yellow-orange, dark-leafy vegetables -fruits -oily saltwater fish -dairy & eggs -Infection Resistance -Night Vision -Bone and soft tissue development -Healing of wounds -Reproduction -inability to absorb fats -diarrhea -obstuction of bile -mineral oil in intestines -overcooking of veggies in an open container -prolonged fever/infection -night blindness -slow growth, weight loss, bone & teeth deformities hypervitaminosis A -irritability, psychiatric symptoms -brittle nails, dry skin & hair -myalgia, joint pain -+ intracranial pressure, vertigo, coma kidney or liver problems diabetes contraindicated for women who are or planning to become pregnant-can cause fetal malformation
Vitamin D (D2- Calciferol, D3-Cholecalciferol, D3- Ergocalciferol) Fat Soluble synthesized in the body through the absorption of sunlight on the skin Also found in fish oil (salmon, tuna) food products fortified with Vit D like milk and cereals maintenance of normal nerve and muscle regulating absorption and metabolism of calcium and phosphorus for bones and teeth pregnancy and lactation poor tooth and bone structure skeletal deformities osteoporosis osteomalacia tetany (muscle spasms) muscle/bone pain kidney damage/kidney stone formation heart rhythm abnormality hypercalcemia with convulsions or confusion fetal disorders do not exceed DRA with cardiovascular disease kidney diseases pregnancy interactions may occur with digoxin mineral oil may interfere with intestinal absorption of Vit D people with low Vitamin D twice as likely to develop CAD, heart failure, stroke, hypertension, diabetes
Created by: chelseastout



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