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Psych 1100E

Lecture 27 (pg. 465-478)

What is the purpose of emtional responses? Emotional responses communicate our inner states to other people and influence how others respond to us.
What are the two main ways infants express their feelings? Facial expressions and vocalizations.
At what age do infants begin to develop a sense of self? 18 months.
What is the main way to know an infant has began developing a sense of self? They are able to recognize themselves in a mirror
At what age do toddlers begin to display pride and shame? 2 years old.
Emotional regulation The process by which we evaluate and modify our emotional reactions.
Temperament A biologically based general style of reactingg emotionally and behaviourally to the environment.
3 classified groups for children according parents from Alexander Thomas and Stella Chess' study Easy infants, difficult infants, slow-to-warm-up infants.
Why was Alexander Thomas and Stella Chess' study critisized? It relied too much on the parents' reports of their childrens' behaviour.
According to behavioural inhibition, describe inhibited infants. Inhibited infants are quiet and timid; they cry and withdraw when they are exposed to unfamiliar people, palces, objects, and sounds.
Describe an uninhibited infant. Uninhibited infants are more sociable, verbal, and spontaneous.
Describe a highly uninhibited infant at 7 years old. Highly uninhibited infants tended to become sociable and talkative 7 year olds.
Describe a highly inhibited infant at 7 years old. Highly inhibited infants developed into quiet, cautious, and shy 7 year olds.
Who came up with the 8 major psychological stages? Erik Erikson
Psychological stages Each stage involves a different "crisis" (ie conflict) over how we view ourselves in relation to other people and the world.
According to Erikson, what is the main psychological crisis from birth to age 1? Basic trust vs. basic mistrust
According to Erikson, what is the main psychological age from age 1-2? autonomy vs. shame and doubt
According to Erikson, what is the main psychological age from age 3-5? initiative vs. guilt
According to Erikson, what is the main psychological age from age 6-12? industry vs inferiority
According to Erikson, what is the main psychological age from age 12-20? identity vs. role confusion
Imprinting A sudden, powerful, biologically primed from of attachment in animals.
At what stage does the strongest imprinting take place? The critical period
Attachment In humans, the strong emotional bond that develops between children and their primary caregivers.
Sensitive period The first few years of life when we most easily form a secure bond with caregivers that enhances our adjustment later in life
Harlow's study (process and conclusion) Terry cloth monkey (comfort) vs barbed wire (nourishment), to see which "mother" the baby monkey would choose. Contact comfort - body contact with a comforting object - is more important in fostering attachment than is the provision of nourishment.
3 stages of attachment during infancy proposed by John Bowlby 1. Indiscriminate attachment (newborns cry, vocalize and smile to anyone) 2. Discriminate attachment (attahcment behaviours towards familiar caregivers over strangers) 3. Specific attachment behaviour (caregivers become a secure base)
Stranger anxiety Distress over contact with unfamiliar people (in this case, infant cries and reaches for caregiver)
Separation anxiety Distress over being seperated from a primary caregiver
Goal-corrected partnership According to Bowlby, this stage emerges in which children and caregivers can describe their feelings to each other and maintain their relationships whether they are together or apart.
Strange Situation Test (developed by who and what is its function) Developed by Ainsworth, it is a standardized procedure for xamining infant attachment. Mother plays with child, then leaves the baby with a stranger.
3 forms of attachment (and 2 subsets) 1. securely attached 2. Insecurely attached --> Anxious-resistant and anxious-avoidant 3. disorganized-disoriented attachment
Securely attached infant Infants explore and react positively to strangers. Distressed when mother leaves, happy when she returns.
Insecurely attached: anxious-resistant Fearful when mother is present (demand her attention) highly distressed when she leaves. Not soothed when she returns, may react angrily.
Insecurely attached: anxious-avoidant Few signs of attachment. Barely cry when mother leaves. Don't seek contact when she returns.
Disorganized-disoriented attachment Appear disoriented and confused. Show contradictory behaviours (trying to get close to mother, then strike out or freeze when mother tries to give comfort)
Attachment deprivation conclusion Being raised without attachment to a real, interactive caregiver produces long-term social impairment.
Authoritative parents Controlling but warm: Demanding, but caring; good child-aorent communication.
Authoritarian parents Controlling and rejecting relationship: Assertion of parental power without warmth.
Indulgent parents Warm and caring but not enough discipline: Warm toward child, but too lax in setting limits.
Neglectful parents Neither warmth nor guidance: Indifferent and uninvolved with child.
Gender identity A sense of "femaleness" or "maleness" that becomes a central aspect of our personal identity.
Gender constancy The understanding that being male or female is a permanent part of a person (develops around age 6-7).
Sex-role stereotypes Beliefs about the type of characteristics and behaviours that are appropriate for boys and girls to possess.
Socialization The process by which we acquire the beliefs, values and behaviours of a group, which plays a key role in shaping our gender identity and sex-role stereotypes.
Sex-typing Treating others differently based on whether they are female or male. Transmitted through observational learning and operant conditioning.
What are the three main levels of moral reasoning? 1. Preconventional 2. Conventional 3. Postconentional
Who developed the stages of moral reasoning? Kohlberg
What is the first level of moral of moral reasoning? Explain it. Preconventional: Basis for judging what is moral: Actual or anticipated punishment and rewards, rather than internalized values.
What are the first and second stages of moral reasoning (preconventional)? Explain them. 1. Punishment/obedience orientation: Obeying rules and avoiding punishment 2. Instrumental/ hedonistic orientation: self-interest and gaining rewards
What is the second level of moral reasoning? Explain it. Conventional: Conformity to the expectations of social group; person adopts other people's values.
What are the third and fourth stages of moral reasoning (conventional)? Explain them. 3. Good child orientation: Gaining approval and maintaining good relations with others 4. Law and order orientation: Doing one's duty, showing respect for authority, and maintaining social order
What is the third level of moral reasoning? Explain it. Postconventional: Moral principles that are well thought out and part of one's belief and value system
What is the fifth stage of moral reasoning (postconventional)? Explain it. 5. Social contract orientation: General principles agreed upon bby society that foster community welfare and individual rights; recognition that society can decide to modify laws that lose their social utility
What is the sixth stage of moral reasoning (postconventional)? Explain it. 6. Universal ethical principles: Abstract ethical principles based on justice and equality; following one's conscience
What do critics argue about Kohlberg's Stages of Moral Reasoning? That the model contains cultural and gender biases.
Created by: jarnol33