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Psych 1100E

Lecture 30 (pg. 509-520)

TermDefinition
Norman Triplett's hypothesis The presence of others energizes performance.
Coactor Additional person to the participant, whose presence is required for the study. "Audience"
Robert Zajonc proposed a theory to explain what hypothesis? Performance on learning tasks worsened when coactors or an audience were present.
Robert Zajonc's Theory (3 parts) 1. Presence of "audience" increases our arousal. 2. Increased arousal causes us to perform our dominant behaviour. 3. When a task is difficult, dominant response is to make errors. When task is easy, dominant response is to perform task correctly.
Dominant response Our most typical response
Social facilitation An increased tendency to perform one's dominant response in the mere presence of others.
James Michaels' study Pool players. Determining the shift in performance depeding on skills (good got better, bad got worse). (Social facilitation)
Social norms Shared expectations about how people should think, feel, and behave.
Social role A set of norms that characterizes how people in a given social position ought to behave. (Ex: professor)
When does role conflict occur? Occurs when the norms accompanying different roles clash. (Ex: police officer and spouse)
Phil Zimbardo's hypothesis and study Norms and roles can influence behaviour so strongly that they compel a person to act uncharacteristically. Regular students put into role as "prison guards" got out of control.
Autokinetic effect Optical illusion where a small dot of light seems to move when stared at.
Muzafer Sherif hypothesis and study Humans placed together seem to develop common standards for behaviour and judement (social norms). In this study, done through a randomly assigned university student group project.
Conformity The ajudstment of individual behaviours, attitudes, and beliefs to a group standard.
Informational social influence Following the opinions or behaviour of other people because we believe they have accurate knowledge and what they are doing is "right".
Normative social influence Conformity motivated by gaining social acceptance and avoiding social rejection.
Confederates "Accomplices" to a study and the experimenter.
Solomon Asch's study All accomplices to experiment respond with the wrong answer. When the only participant, who doesn't realize the others aren't participants too, is asked to answer, he/she often conformed to the wrong answer, even if it was known to be wrong.
What is the effect of group size on conformity? Increases conformity, but after an additional 4 or 5 confederates further increase in group size did not increase conformity.
What is the effect of the presence of a dissenter on conformity? Noticeably reduced real participant's conformity.
Stanley Milgram analyzed what? Conscience and authority (obedience to authority). The shock experiment, how far a regular citizen would go to conform to authority.
3 factors influencing destructive behaviour (think Milgram's experiment) 1. Remoteness of the victim 2. closeness and legitimacy of the authority figure 3. Performing the action versus approving it
Compliance techniques Strategies that may manipulate you into saying "yes" when you really want to say "no".
Norm of reciprocity The norm that when other people treat us well, we should respond in kind.
Door-in-the-face technique A manipulation technique in which a persuader makes a large request, expecting you to reject it, and then presents a smaller request.
Foot-in-the-door technique A manipulation technique in which the persuader gets someone to comply with a small request first and later presents a larger request.
Lowballing A manipulation technique in which a persuader gets someone to commit some behaviour and then increases the "cost" of that same behaviour.
Robert Cialdini's quote on manipulation "The rule says that favors are to be met with favors; it does not require that tricks be met with favors."
Deindividuation A state of increased anonimity in which a person, often as part of s group or crowd, engages in dishibited behaviour.
What did Tom Postmes and Russell Spears ' study determine? That anonimity to outsiders is the key to deindividuation. Conditions that make an individual less identifiable to people outside the group reduce feelings of accoutnability and increase risk of antisocial actions.
What did Max Ringelmann notice in his study? He expected 3 individuals' strengths to triple when combined to work together, however it lessened when the individuals became a group.
Social loafing The tendency for people to expend less individual effort when working in a group than when working alone.
Alan Ingham's study Blindfolded and individual pulling a rope, and told that person that he/she was either working alone or with others, although the individual was always alone. Effort decreased when the participant was told he/she was pulling the rope with others.
Name Steven Karau and Kipling Williams' model, and explain it. Collective effort model: On a collective task, people will put forth effort only to the extent that they expect their effort to contribute to obtaining a valued goal.
Social compensation Working harder in a group than alone if the individual expects that their colleagues either don't have enough ability or will slack off.
What concept did Irving Janis come up with? Explain it. Groupthink: the tendency for group members to suspend critical thinking because they are striving to seek agreement.
Alan Ingham's study Blindfolded and individual pulling a rope, and told that person that he/she was either working alone or with others, although the individual was always alone. Effort decreased when the participant was told he/she was pulling the rope with others.
Name Steven Karau and Kipling Williams' model, and explain it. Collective effort model: On a collective task, people will put forth effort only to the extent that they expect their effort to contribute to obtaining a valued goal.
Social compensation WOrking harder in a group than alone if the individual expects that their colleagues either don't have enough ability or will slack off.
What concept did Irving Janis come up with? Explain it. Groupthink: the tendency for group members to suspend critical thinking because they are striving to seek agreement.
Group polarization When a group of like-minded people discusses an issue, whether face to face or through email, the "average" opinion of group members tends to become more extreme.
Created by: jarnol33