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M,S and emotion

Motive specific need/desire arouses organism and directs its behavior towards a goal; response to stimulus
Instincts genetically programmed patterns of behavior (fixed action patterns)
Drive Reduction Theory (Clark Hull 1950's) physiological needs (bio. necessity for survival) put demands on the body (drives)
Primary Drive unlearned (bio needs 10-15; hunger/thirst/sex)
Secondary Drive learned (social needs; wealth/grades/achievements)
Drive Reduction Criticism does not explain continued behavior w/ no biological deficiency, and does not explain activities that increase tension
Incentive Theory objects in the environment that can motivate behavior; external stimuli ex) commercials, without knowing singing their theme song
Optimal Arousal Theory optimum level of arousal for maximum performance on a given task.
Yerkes-Dodson Law complex tasks low arousal/simple tasks higher level of arousal tolerated
Intrinsic provided by an activity itself/personality rewarding or fulfill beliefs-expectations
Extrinsic provided from the consequences of an activity/ rewards and punishments
Abraham Maslow Hierarchical system for organizing needs (5 levels; each lower level need to be met in order to attempt to try to meet the next)
Self Actualization individual creatively and meaningfully fulfill their own potential.
Maslow's Hierarchy of Needs Self-Actualization, Esteem, Beloningness, Safety, Physiocolgical
Advantages combination of bio and social need into 1 Framework; system of priorities to satisfy needs.
Disadvantages difficult to verify accuracy of order; trouble assessing needs; individuals give different priorities; sample-case studies western white males.
Homeostatic Regulation Theory most motivation experience is a result of body trying to maintain
Homeostasis the state of regulatory equilibrium/balance (set point)
Anoreixa Nervosa intense fear of weight gain and distorted body image
Bulima Nervosa Binges of eating followed by self induced vomiting (purging)
Obesity 30% over body weight
Thirst lateral hypothalamus monitors fluids in body 2 ways
Osmoreceptors intracellular water levels; low --> actidiuretic (ADH) to reduce urine and increase thirst; (ADH) Eliminated when H20 restored.
Volumetric extracellular H20 levels; Low --> Angiotensin (Hormone) stimulate thirst
Sex testosterone a major biological influence in both male and female
Sexual Orientation nature influence but primarily learned.
Henry Murray motivation based on biology individual differences and environments can cause motivations and needs to be expressed in many different ways.
Stimulus Motives unlearned; prompt us to explore and change our world around us
Harry Harlow experimented with monkeys related to stimulus motives; need for contact more imp. than food
Achievement Motive need to excel, overcome obstacles 3 aspects: work, mastery, and competitiveness
David Mcclelland those with high achievement needs seek our fairly challenging tasks (optimum range for achievement)
Affillation Motive need to be with others aroused when threatened; tied to fear and anxiety
Emotion states of feelings influence and activate behavior difficult to predict behavior prompted from an emotion
Robert Plutchik eight basic emotions, vary in intensity; can combine for more
Primary cross-cultural; survival; distinct facial expressions; found in primates
Secondary culture specific
James Lange Theory environmental stimuli cause physiologicll changes and responses.
Created by: annsonic