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PHARM101 - 1

Terminology up to midterm exam.

TermDefinition
dysphonia Difficulty speaking due to a physical disorder of the mouth , tongue, throat, or vocal cords
dyskinesia Distortion in voluntary muscle movement, spastic; uncontrollable abnormal involuntary repetitive body movements
dystonia Muscle spasms, facial grimacing, and other involuntary movements and postures.
fascia The membrane that covers muscles.
fasciculation Involuntary twitching of muscle fiber groups.
fibromyalgia A somewhat mysterious chronic syndrome that causes fatigue, widespread muscle and joint pain, weakness, sleep disorders, and other symptoms.
false transmitter Substance found in nerve endings that mimics and interferes with the actions of the normal transmitter.
fight or flight reaction Response of the body to intense stress; caused by activation of the sympathetic division of the autonomic nervous system.
first-pass metabolism Drug metabolism that occurs in the intestines and liver during oral absorption of drugs into the systemic circulation.
fraction Part of a whole.
GABA Gamma-aminobutyric acid, the principal inhibitory neurotransmitter in the CNS (brain stem and spinal cord).
ganglionic blocker Drug that blocks the nicotinic-neural (Nn) receptors and reduces the activity of the autonomic nervous system.
ganglionic stimulant Drug that stimulates the nicotinic-neural (Nn) receptors to increase autonomic nervous system activity.
general anesthesia Deep state of unconsciousness in which there is no response to stimuli, including painful stimuli.
general anesthetic Drug that abolishes the response to pain by depressing the central nervous system (CNS) and producing loss of consciousness.
generic name Non-proprietary name of a drug.
geriatrics Medical specialty that deals with individuals over 65 years of age.
absorption The uptake of nutrients and drugs from the GI tract.
acetylcholine (ACH) Neurotransmitter of the parasympathetic (cholinergic) nerves; stimulates the cholinergic receptor; excitatory neurotransmitter in the basal ganglia.
acetylcholinesterase An enzyme that inactivates acetylcholine.
addiction A chronic neurobiologic disease in which genetic, psychosocial, and environmental factors induce changes in the individual's behavior to compulsively use drugs despite the harm that may result.
adipose tissue Tissue containing fat cells.
adrenergic Refers to nerves that release norepinephrine.
adrenergic neuronal blocker Drug that acts at the neuronal nerve endings to reduce the formation or release of NE.
adrenergic receptor Receptor located on internal organs that responds to norepinephrine and epinephrine.
adverse effect General term for undesirable and potentially harmful drug effect.
afferent nerve Transmits sensory information from peripheral organs to the brain and spinal cord (central nervous system)
agonist Drug that attaches to a receptor and initiates an action; drug that binds to a receptor and activates a physiologic response or drug action.
akathesia Continuous body movement in which an individual is restless or constantly paces about.
akinesia Loss of voluntary muscle movement; restless leg movement.
allergen A substance that causes an allergic reaction.
alpha adrenergic drug Drug that stimulates the alpha adrenergic receptors.
alpha-1 adrenergic blocker Drug that blocks the alpha-1 effects of NE and EPI.
alpha-1 adrenergic receptor Receptor located on smooth muscle that mediates smooth muscle contraction.
alpha-2 adrenergic receptor Receptor located on adrenergic nerve endings that reduces the release of NE.
amide local anesthetic Anesthetic class that includes lidocaine, bupivicaine, and mepivicaine and has a moderate to long duration of action because metabolism occurs in the liver.
analgesia Decreased response to pain; condition in which painful stimuli are not consciously interpreted (perceived) as hurting; relief from pain; inhibition of the perception of pain.
analgesic Substance (synthetic or naturally occurring) that inhibits the body's reaction to painful stimuli pr perception of pain.
anaphylaxis Condition in which the body develops a severe allergic response; this is a medical emergency.
antagonist Drug that attaches to a receptor, does not initiate an action, but blocks an agonist from producing an effect; drug that binds to a receptor and interferes with other drugs or substances from producing a drug effect.
antagonistic Counteract; oppose.
antianxiety drug Drug used to treat anxiety; these drugs drugs are also referred to as anxiolytics.
antiarrhythmic drug Drug used to restore normal cardiac rhythm.
antibiotic Antibacterial drug obtained from other microorganisms.
anticholinergic Refers to drugs or effects that reduce the activity of the parasympathetic nervous system.
anti-inflammatory Minimizing or stopping the response to tissue injury by reducing the pain, localized swelling, and chemical substances released at the site of injury.
antipsychotic drug Drug used to treat schizophrenia and other psychotic conditions.
arrhythmia Disorder of cardiac conduction and electrical impulse formation.
asthma Inflammation of the bronchioles associated with constriction of smooth muscle, wheezing, and edema; respiratory disease characterized by bronchoconstriction, shortness of breath, and wheezing.
autonomic ganglia The collection of synapses between the pre- and postganglionic nerve fibers.
autonomic nervous system (ANS) System of nerves that innervate smooth and cardiac muscle (involuntary) of the internal organs and glands.
barbiturate CNS depressant drug possessing the barbituric acid ring structure.
basal ganglia A group of cell bodies (gray matter) within the white matter of the cerebrum that helps control body movement; involved in regulation of skeletal muscle tone and body movement.
benzodiazepine Class of drug used to treat anxiety and sleep disorders.
beta-1 adrenergic receptor Receptor located on the heart that increases heart rate and force of contraction.
beta-2 adrenergic receptor Receptor located on smooth muscle that relaxes smooth muscle when stimulated.
bioavailability Percentage of the drug dosage that is absorbed.
biologic drug A substance made from a living organism or its products used to prevent or treat disease.
black box warning (boxed warnings) A warning that appears in the instructions for use surrounded by a thick black box to alert medical professionals to serious or life-threatening adverse effects associated with the drug usage.
blepharospasm Involuntary blinking or spasm of the eyelid.
blood pressure (BP) The pressure of the blood within the arteries; depends primarily on the cardiac output and peripheral resistance.
botulism A life-threatening illness caused by the bacteria Clostridium botulinum.
bradykinesia Slowed body movement.
bronchodialator Drug that relaxes bronchial smooth muscle and dilates the lower respiratory passages.
buccal absorption Absorption of drug through the mucous membranes lining the oral cavity.
carcinogenic Causing cancer.
cardiac arrhythmia Variation in the normal rhythm (motion) of the heart.
catecholamine Refers to norepinephrine, epinephrine, and other sympathomimetic compounds that process the catechol structure.
cation Positively charged ion.
caudal anesthesia Injection of a local anesthetic into the caudal or subcaudal spinal canal.
centrally acting skeletal muscle relaxant Drug that inhibits skeletal muscle contraction by blocking conduction within the spinal cord.
cerebellum Part of the brain that coordinates body movements and posture and helps maintain body equilibrium.
cerebral cortex Uppermost layers of the cerebrum involved in sensory perception, voluntary motor control, and all higher intellectual abilities.
cerebrum Largest and uppermost part of the brain that is divided into right and left hemispheres.
chemical name Name that defines the chemical composition of a drug.
cholinergic Refers to the nerves that release acetylcholine and to the receptors of the parasympathetic nervous system; also refers to the drugs that stimulate this system.
cholinergic receptor Receptor located on the internal organs and glands that responds to acetylcholine.
contraindications Situations or conditions when a certain drug should not be administered.
controlled substance Drug that has the potential for abuse and thus is regulated by law.
creatinine A metabolite of muscle metabolism that is excreted in the urine in proportion to renal function.
creatinine clearance A measure of renal creatinine excretion that is used to evaluate renal function.
cryoanesthesia Removing the sensation of touch or pain by applying extreme cold the nerve endings.
-cytic Suffix meaning cells.
decimal Another way to write a fraction when the denominator is 10, 100, 1000, and so on.
dehiscence Bursting open or separation of a wound, usually along sutured line.
denominator Bottom number of a fraction; shows the number of parts in a whole.
dependancy Requirement of repeated drug consumption in order to prevent onset of withdrawal symptoms.
depolarization The decrease in electric potential across a cell membrane that results in excitation and generation of an action potential.
depolarizing blocker Produces paralysis by first causing nerve transmission, followed by inhibition of nerve transmission.
dissociative anesthesia Form of general anesthesia in which patients do not appear to be unconscious.
dopamine Inhibitory neurotransmitter in the basal ganglia.
dose A measurement of the amount of drug that is administered.
drug Chemical substance that produces a change in body function.
drug absorption Entrance of a drug into the bloodstream from its site of administration.
drug addiction Condition of drug abuse and drug dependence that is characterized by compulsive drug behavior.
drug compliance Following drug prescription directions exactly as written.
drug dependence Condition of reliance on the use of a particular drug, characterized by physical and/or psychological dependence.
drug distribution Passage of a drug from the blood stream to the tissues and organs of the body.
drug excretion Elimination of the drug from the body.
drug indications Intended or indicated uses for any drug.
drug metabolism The enzymatic biotransformation of a drug into metabolites.
drug microsomal metabolizing system (DMMS) Group of enzymes located primarily in the liver that function to metabolize (biotransformation) drugs.
drug resistance Lack of responsiveness of cancer cells to chemotherapy.
drug tolerance Requirement of larger doses to be consumed in order to obtain the desired effects; decreased drug effect occurring after repeated drug administration.
dysphagia Difficulty swallowing.
ED50 Effective dose 50, or dose that will produce an effect that is half of the maximal response.
efferent nerve Carries the appropriate motor response from the brain and spinal cord to the peripheral organs.
electroencephalogram (EEG) A surface recording of the electrical activity of the brain.
emetogenic A substance that causing vomiting.
endogenous Naturally occurring in the body; originating or produced within an organism, tissue, or cell.
enterohepatic recycling The process whereby drug is eliminated from the liver /biliary tract into the GI tract and then reabsorbed from the GI tract back to the liver.
enzyme induction Increase in the amount of drug-metabolizing enzymes after repeated administration of certain drugs.
enzyme inhibition Inhibition of drug-metabolizing enzymes by certain drugs.
epidural anesthesia Injection of a local anesthetic into the extradural (outermost part of the spinal canal) space.
epinephrine (EPI) Hormone from the adrenal medulla that stimulates adrenergic receptors, especially during stress.
ester local anesthesia Anesthetic class that includes procaine, cocaine, benzocaine, and tetracaine, metabolism primarily by plasma cholinesterases.
euphoria Feeling of well-being or elation; feeling good.
half-life Time required for the body to reduce the amount of drug in the plasma by one-half.
hallucinogenic drug A drug or plant substance that produces psychotomimetic effects and sensory distortions.
halogenated hydrocarbon Compound the contains halogen (chlorine, fluorine, bromine, iodine) combined with hydrogen and carbon.
heart rate (HR) Number of heartbeats per minute.
hepatic microsomal metabolism Specific enzymes in the liver (P450 family) that metabolize some drugs and can be increased (stimulated) by some medications or decreased (inhibited) by other medications to that therapeutic drug blood levels are altered.
histamine Substance that interacts with tissues to produce most of the symptoms of allergy.
homeostasis Normal state of balance among the body's internal organs.
hormone Substance produced within one organ and secreted directly into the circulation to exert its effects at a distant location.
hyperacidity Abnormally high degree of acidity (for example, pH less than 1) in the stomach.
hyperalgesia An abnormally painful response to a stimulus.
hyperglycemia Higher than normal level of glucose in the blood; fasting blood glucose higher than 126 mg/dl.
hyperhydrosis A condition of excessive sweating.
hyperpolarized A change in the cell membrane potential that makes the inside of the cell even more negative, so it can't respond to stimulation.
hypermotility Increase in muscle tone or contractions causing faster clearance of substances through the GI tract.
hypersensitivity Exaggerated response such as rash, edema, or anaphylaxis that develops following exposure to certain drugs or chemicals.
hypertension Abnormally high blood pressure.
hyperthermia Abnormally high body temperature.
hypoglycemia Lower than normal range of plasma glucose concentration in the blood; fasting blood glucose below 40 mg/dl in women or 50 mg/dl in men accompanied by symptoms of diabetes.
hypothalamus Part of the brainstem that regulates functions such as body temperature, water balance, appetite, and pituitary gland; center of the brain that influences mood, motivation, and the perception of pain.
hypoxia Reduction of oxygen supply to tissues below the amount required for normal physiological function.
improper fraction Fraction that has a value equal to or greater than 1.
incompatability Undesirable interaction of drugs not suitable for combination or administration together.
individual variation Difference in the effects of drugs and drug dosages from one person to another.
induction of general anesthesia Time required to take a patient from consciousness to Stage III of anesthesia.
infiltration anesthesia Injection of a local anesthetic directly into the tissue.
inflammation Condition in which tissues have been damaged, characterized by swelling, pain, heat, and sometimes redness.
insulin Hormone secreted by the beta cells of the pancreas to facilitate glucose entry into the cell.
intolerant Not able to continue drug therapy usually because of extreme sensitivity to the side effects.
intoxication State in which a substance has accumulated to potentially harmful levels in the body.
intra-articular (IA Joint space into which drug is injected.
intradermal anesthesia Injection of a local anesthetic into the part of the skin called the dermis.
intramuscular (IM) injection Route of drug administration; drug is injected into gluteal or deltoid muscles.
intrathecal Space around the brain and spinal cord that contains the cerebrospinal fluid.
intravenous (IV) injection Route of drug administration; drug is injected directly into a vein.
LD50 Lethal dose 50, or dose that will kill 50 percent of the laboratory animals tested.
limbic system Neural pathway connecting different brain areas involved in regulation of behavior and emotion.
loading dose Initial drug dose administered to rapidly achieve therapeutic drug concentrations.
local anesthetic Drug that reduces response to pain by affecting nerve conduction. The action can be limited to an area of the body according to the site of administration.
maintenance dose Dose administered to maintain drug blood levels in the therapeutic range; daily dosage of cardiac glycoside that maintains effective drug levels in the blood.
maintenance of general anesthesia Ability to keep a patient safely in Stage III of anesthesia.
malaria Protozoal infection characterized by attacks of chills, fever, and sweating.
malignant Life-threatening; refers to growth of a cancerous tumor
malignant hypertension Condition of hypertensive crisis where the high BP is causing vascular inflammation and necrosis of the blood vessels; hypertensive crisis associated with inflammation and vascular damage.
malignant hyperthermia Condition in susceptible individuals resulting in a life-threatening elevation in body temperature.
mechanism of action Explanation of how a drug produces its effects.
medulla oblangata Lower part of the brainstem that controls cardiac, vasomotor, and respiratory functions.
medullary paralysis Condition in which overdose of anesthetic shuts down cardiovascular and respiratory functions.
medullary depression Inhibition of automatic responses controlled by the medulla, such as breathing or cardiac function.
minimal alveolar concentration (MAC) Standard reference for inhaled anesthetics indicating the lowest concentration of anesthetic in the alveoli (lungs) that keeps 50% of the patients from responding to stimuli (moving).
mixed-function oxidase system Drug microsomal metabolizing enzymes (DMMS)that decrease with age and slow the rate of drug oxidation and metabolism.
mixed number Number written with both whole number and fraction.
monitored anesthetic care (MAC) Setting in which intravenous sedation is followed by propofol and patient is observed, evaluate, and electronically monitored throughout the recovery period.
mu-opioid receptor antagonist Drugs that block the mu protein receptor for opioids.
muscarinic receptor An older but more specific term for the cholinergic receptor on smooth and cardiac muscle.
myalgia Pain associated with muscle injury; pain associated with a muscle or group of muscles.
myelin The fatty substance that covers and protects the nerves and allows efficient conduction of action potentials down the axon.
myelosuppression Suppression of bone marrow activity that interferes with the production of all blood cells; causes anemia, increased infections, and bleeding problems.
myocardial infraction (MI) Sudden death of an area of heart muscle, commonly referred to as a heart attack.
nerve conduction Transfer of impulses along a nerve by the movement of sodium and potassium ions.
neuroleptanalgesia Condition in which the patient is quite and calm and has no response to pain after the combined administration of an opioid analgesic (fentanyl) and a tranquilizer (droperidol).
neuroleptanesthesia State of unconsciousness plus neuroleptanalgesia produced by the combined administration of nitrous oxide, fentanyl, and droperidol.
neuroleptic malignant syndrome (NMS) Toxic syndrome associated with the use of antipsychotic drug.
neuromuscular junction (NMJ) Space (synapse) between a motor nerve ending and a skeletal muscle membrane that contains acetylcholine (ACH) receptors.
neurotoxin A substance that is destructive to nerve tissue.
neurotransmitter Substance that stimulates internal organs to produce characteristic changes associated with sympathetic and parasympathetic divisions.
neurotransmitter-gated ion channel Ion channel s that open or close when a neurotransmitter binds to a receptor.
nicotine Alkaloid drug in tobacco that stimulates ganglionic receptors.
nicotinic-muscle (Nm) receptor Cholinergic receptor located at the neuromuscular junction of skeletal muscle.
nicotinic-neural (Nn) receptor Cholinergic receptor at the autonomic ganglia; cholinergic receptor located on both sympathetic and parasympathetic ganglia.
NMDA (N-methyl D-asparate) receptor A glutamate receptor in the brain that causes excitation.
nonbarbiturate Refers to sedative-hypnotic drugs that do not possess the barbituric acid structure, such as benzodiazepines and related drugs.
nondepolarizing blocker Produces paralysis by inhibiting nerve transmission.
nonopioid analgesic Formerly known as nonnarcotic analgesics, such as NSAIDs and COX-2 inhibitors.
nonprescription, over-the-counter (OTC) drug Drug that can be purchased without the services of a licensed physician.
nonselective Interacts with any subtype receptor.
nonselective beta-adrenergic blocker Drug that blocks both beta-1 an beta-2 adrenergic receptors.
nonselective beta-adrenergic drug Drug that stimulates both beta-1 and beta-2 receptors.
norepinephrine (NE) Neurotransmitter of sympathetic (adrenergic) nerves that stimulates the adrenergic receptors.
numerator Top number of a fraction; shows the part.
opiate Drug derived from opium and producing the same pharmacological effects as opium.
opioid Drug that produces the same pharmacological effects as opium and its family of drugs or the neuropeptides (enkephalin, endorphin) produced by the body.
opioid analgesics Chemically related to morphine or opium and used to relieve pain.
opioid antagonist A drug that attaches itself to opioid receptors and displaces the opioid analgesic or opioid neuropeptide.
oral administration Route of administration by way of the mouth through swallowing.
parasympathetic Refers to nerves of the ANS that originate in the brain and sacral portion of the spinal cord; they are active when the body is at rest or trying to restore body energy and function.
parasympatholytic Refers t drugs (anticholinergic) that decrease activity of the parasympathetic nervous system.
parasympathomimetic Refers to drugs (cholinergic) that mimic stimulation of the parasympathetic nervous system.
parenteral administration Route of drug administration that does not involve the gastrointestinal (GI) tract.
parietal (oxyntic) cell Cell that synthesizes and releases hydrochloric acid (HCI) into the stomach lumen.
parkinsonism Disease or drug-induced condition characterized by tremors, musclular rigidity, and disturbances of movement and postural balance
Parkinson's disease Movement disorder of the basal ganglia caused by a deficiency of dopamine.
percent Decimal fraction with a denominator of 100.
peripheral nerve Part of the nervous system that is outside the CNS (the brain or spinal cord), usually near the surface of the tissue fibers or skin.
peripheral skeletal muscle relaxant Drug that inhibits contraction at the neuromuscular junction or within the contractile process.
pharmacokinetics Describes the processes of drug absorption, drug distribution, drug metabolism, and drug excretion.
pharmacology Study of drugs.
physical dependence A condition in which the body requires a substance (drug) not normally found in the body in order to avoid symptoms associated with withdrawal, or the abstinence syndrome.
polypharmacy The situation in patients whose treatment involves multiple drug prescriptions.
pons Part of the brainstem that serves as a relay station for nerve fibers traveling to other brain areas; also involved in sensory and motor functions.
postganglionic nerve fiber Autonomic nerve fiber that travels from the autonomic ganglia to the internal organs and glands.
potency Measure of strength or concentration of a drug required to produce a specific effect.
preferred anesthetic Produces adequate anesthesia with minimal side effects.
potentiates Produces an action that is greater than either of the components can produce alone; synergy.
preganglionic nerve fiber Autonomic nerve fiber that emerges from the cranial nerves and spinal cord and that travels to the autonomic ganglia where it synapses with the postganglionic nerve fibers.
prescription drug Drug for which dispensing requires a written or phone order that can only be issued by or under the direction of a licensed physician.
proper fraction Fraction that has a value less than 1.
porportion A mathematical equation that expresses the equality between two ratios.
psychotomimetic drug Drug or substance that can induce psychic and behavioral patterns characteristic of a psychosis.
puberty Sequence of physiological changes associated with the expression of sexual characteristics and reproductive function that occur when a child progresses into young adulthood, usually at 12 to 14 years of age.
ratio The relationship of one number to another expressed by whole numbers (1:5) or as a fraction (1/5).
receptor Specific cellular structure that a drug binds to and that produces a physiologic effect.
regional nerve block Also called nerve block the injection of a local anesthetic near the nerve route.
reticular formation Network of nerve fibers that travel throughout the CNS that regulates the level of wakefullness.
sarcoplasm The cytoplasm of a straited (skeletal) muscle fiber.
secondary hypertension Form of hypertension in which the cause is unknown.
sedative Drug used to produce mental relaxation and to reduce the desire for physical activity.
selective Interacts with one subtype of receptor over others.
selective beta-1 adrenergic blocker Drug that blocks only beta-1 receptors.
selective beta-2 adrenergic drug Drug that stimulates only beta-2 receptors at therapeutic doses.
side effect Drug effect other than the therapeutic effect that is usually undesirable but not harmful.
site of action Location within the body where a drug exerts its therapeutic effect, often a specific drug receptor.
solute Substance dissolved in a solvent; usually present in a lesser amount.
solution Homogeneous mixture of two or more substances.
solvent Liquid portion of a solution that is capable of dissolving another substance.
spasmogenic Causing a muscle to contract intermittently, resulting in a state of spasms.
spasmolytics Drugs that relieve, interrupt, or prevent muscle spasms (intermittent muscle contractions often associated with pain).
spinal anesthesia Injection of a local anesthetic into the subarachnoid space.
spread effect Condition in which the intramuscularly injected substance moves out of the area of administration and produces an effect on other tissues.
-static Suffix denoting the inhibition of, as of microorganisms.
sympathetic Refers to nerves of the ANS that originate from the thoracolumbar portion of the spinal cord; they are active when the body is under stress or when it is exerting energy.
sympatholytic Refers to the action of an adrenergic blocking drug or an action that decreases sympathetic activity .
sympathomimetic Refers to the action of an adrenergic drug or action that increases sympathetic activity.
synaptic cleft Space (synapse)between a motor nerve ending and a skeletal muscle membrane that contains acetylcholine (ACH) receptors.
synaptic knob Contains vesicles that store and release neurotransmitters.
synaptic vesicles A small membrane-bound structure in the axon terminals of nerve cells that contains neurotransmitters and releases them when an action potential reaches the terminal.
synergistic Complimentary or additive.
synergism When the action resulting from a combination of drugs is greater than the sum of their individual drug effects.
synthetic drug Drug produced by a chemical process produced outside the body.
systemic Occurring in the general circulation, resulting in distribution to most organs.
teritogenic Capable of causing birth defects or fetal abnormalities or development; capable of causing abnormal development.
thalamus Uppermost part of the brainstem that regulates sensory and motor impulses traveling to and from the cerebral cortex.
therapeutic dose The amount (dose) of drug required to produce the desired change in the disease or condition.
therapeutic effect Desired drug effect to alleviate some condition or symptom of disease.
therapeutic index (TI) Ratio of the LD50 to the ED50 in animal studies.
tolerance Ability of the body to alter its response (to adapt) to drug effects so that the effects are minimized over time.
tonic Convulsive muscle contraction characterized by sustained muscular contractions.
topical application Placing the drug on the surface of the skin or mucous membrane (for example, mouth, rectum).
toxic effect Undesirable drug effect that implies drug poisoning; can be very harmful or life-threatening.
transdermal absorption Absorption of drug (substance) through the skin, usually associated with the application of drug-loaded patches.
vagolytic action Inhibition of the vagus nerve to the heart, causing the heart rate to increase (counteraction to vagal tone that causes bradycardia)
vasoconstriction Tightening or contraction of muscles (sphincters) controlling blood vessels, which decreases blood flow through the vessels
vasodilation Relaxation of the muscles (sphincters) controlling blood vessel tone, which increases blood flow through the vessels.
vasodilator Substance that relaxes the muscles (sphincters) controlling blood vessels, leading to increased blood flow.
tachyardia Abnormally rapid heartbeat.
drug abuse A condition in which drug is repeatedly taken for non-medical reasons.
trade name Patented proprietary name of a drug sold by a specific drug manufacturer; also referred to as the brand name.
toxicology The study of the damaging side effects of substances on living organisms.
teratogen A substance that can cause birth defects.
posology The study of drug dosages needed to produce the desired effects.
pharmacy The practice and profession of preparing and dispensing drugs.
pharmacotherapeutics The study of using drugs in patients with diseases.
pharmacodynamics The study of how drugs affect living organisms.
intraarterial An injection given into an artery usually for absorption by an internal organ.
carcinogen A substance that can cause cancer.
brand name The trade name given to a compound by a manufacturer to market and sell a particular drug.
adolescent A person who has reached puberty but is not yet a full-grown adult, about 12-17 years of age.
adult A person over 18 years old.
adjunct drugs Drugs used during, before and after a surgical procedure in which a general anesthetic drug is also used to provide other effects, such as to decrease anxiety or risk of infection.
plasma The colorless fluid part of blood, lymph, or milk in which corpuscles or fat globules are suspended.
protein Nutritional component that effects plasma protein and DMMS enzyme production.
placebo effect A psychological phenomenon in which a person's belief that a compound will work can make an otherwise ineffective compound relieve symptoms.
placebo A compound with no pharmalogic action.
pediatric Patients who are younger than 18 years old.
organogenesis The formation of vital organs in a fetus, which occurs during the first 3 months of pregnancy.
neonates A newborn baby less than a month old.
Somatic Division The part of the peripheral nervous system that controls voluntary movements.
synapses A region where nerve impulses are transmitted and received; the gap between 2 neurons that a nerve impulse travels across.
thoracolumbar division The sympathetic division if the ANS.
Visceral Division Autonomic Nervous System
smooth muscle involuntary muscles in the parts of the body, including blood vessels; the digestive, respiratory, urinary, and reproductive systems; and the pupils.
drug incompatability The physical effect(s) drugs have on each other prior to administration, which makes them unacceptable for combination.
bradycardia Relatively slow heartbeat.
drug interactions S.L.U.D. (Salivation, Lacrimation, Urination, Defecation), Neuromuscular paralysis, confusion.
peripheral organs All organs outside of the brain and spinal cord.
strabismus Condition in which the eyes are not aligned and point in different directions. (cross-eyed)
Schwann cell Any cell that covers the axons in the peripheral nervous system and forms the myelin sheath.
sarcoplasmic reticulum Specialized organelle in the muscle cell that releases calcium ions during muscle contraction and absorbs calcium ions during relaxation.
sarcolemma A thin membrane enclosing a straited (skeletal) muscle fiber.
myofilaments Minute fibers locates throughout the cytoplasm of cells, composed of the protein actin, that maintains the structural integrity of a cell.
multiple sclerosis An autoimmune disease characterized by the breakdown of myelin, a substance covering nerve axons. The breakdown interferes with nerve transmission and causes muscle weakness, loss of coordination, and speech and vision problems.
mytochondria Normal structures responsible for energy production in cells.
hypotension Abnormally low blood pressure.
axon A nerve fiber either preganglionic or postganglionic.
adrenal medulla The inner region of the adrenal gland that consists of cells that secrete hormones.
muscarinic receptor Cholinergic receptor located on the cell walls of internal organs and glands.
autorhythmicity The property of smooth and cardiac muscle that cause them to contract automatically, without a signal from the CNS.
craniosacral division The parasympathetic division of the ANS.
cerebral palsy A disorder caused by injury to the developing brain that is marked by motor, speech, learning, and other disabilities.
spastic Stiff, uncontrolled muscle movements.
bolus A single, relatively large dose of a drug, usually given by IV. It is administered to deliver the therapeutic action quickly.
antidote A drug that neutralizes the effect from another drug r allergen and can be given in cases of overdose or allergic reaction.
ataxia A condition marked by poor muscle coordination.
brainstem The lower part of the brain that connects the cerebrum to the spinal cord. This is the most primitive part of the brain and is responsible for regulation of vital body functions. (breathing, swallowing, heartbeat, etc.)
expectorate Eject from the mouth; spit
acute intermittent porphyria A condition caused by a chemical imbalance in the body that can result in hypertension, abdominal gas, neuropathy, and psychosis.
brain The organ inside the skull that controls all thought and directs body functions.
Amygdala A part of the limbic system that deals with emotional response.
white matter Nerve fibers in the brain that are insulated with myelin; it is responsible for information transmission.
spinal cord The nervous tissue found within the vertebral column that serves as a conduit between the brain and the body.
neuron A cell in the nervous system responsible for the transmission and processing of information ; also known as a nerve cell.
ipsilateral To have control over the same side of the body.
hippocampus A part of the limbic system that is involved in recording initial experiences.
gray matter Unmyelinated nerve cell bodies and extensions, glial cells, and capillaries in the brain; it is responsible for information processing.
dendrite One of the numerous extensions from a neuron that receives electrical signals and transmits them to the nerve cell.
diencephalon A part of the brain that includes the thalamus and the hypothalamus.
contralateral To have control over the opposite side of the body.
Central Nervous System (CNS) The body's system that consists of the brain and spinal cord.
microcilia Tiny hairs that line the respiratory tract and continuously move pushing secretions towards the mouth.
myocardium The muscular layer of the heart.
Created by: jdouglas147