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Intro to A&P Unit 1

Anatomy The study of the body structure of animals.
Surface Anatomy The study of anatomical landmarks that can be identified by observing the surface of the body. Sometimes called superficial anatomy.
Microscopic Anatomy The study of minute anatomical structures on a microscopic scale, including cells (cytology) and tissues (histology).
Gross (or Macroscopic) Anatomy The study of anatomical features visible to the naked eye, such as internal organs and external features.
Homeostasis The ability of a system or living organism to adjust its internal environment to maintain a stable equilibrium, such as the ability of warm-blooded animals to maintain a constant body temperature.
Negative feedback A feedback loop in which the output of a system reduces the activity that causes that output.
Positive feedback A feedback loop in which the output of a system is increased by the mechanism’s own influence on the system that creates that output.
Atom The smallest possible amount of matter which still retains its identity as a chemical element, consisting of a nucleus surrounded by electrons.
Proton Positively charged subatomic particle forming part of the nucleus of an atom and determining the atomic number of an element. It weighs 1 amu.
Neutron A subatomic particle forming part of the nucleus of an atom. It has no charge. It is equal in mass to a proton or it weighs 1 amu.
Eukaryotic Having complex cells in which the genetic material is contained within membrane-bound nuclei.
cell The basic unit of a living organism, consisting of a quantity of protoplasm surrounded by a cell membrane, which is able to synthesize proteins and replicate itself.
plasma membrane The semipermeable barrier that surrounds the cytoplasm of a cell.
diffusion The passive movement of a solute across a permeable membrane
concentration gradient A concentration gradient is present when a membrane separates two different concentrations of molecules.
chromatin a complex of DNA, RNA, and proteins within the cell nucleus out of which chromosomes condense during cell division
phospholipid Any lipid consisting of a diglyceride combined with a phosphate group and a simple organic molecule such as choline or ethanolamine; they are important constituents of biological membranes
hypertonic having a greater osmotic pressure than another
hypotonic Having a lower osmotic pressure than another; a cell in this environment causes water to enter the cell, causing it to swell.
cytoskeleton A cellular structure like a skeleton, contained within the cytoplasm.
epidermis The outermost layer of the skin.
dermis The middle layer of the skin.
Created by: anreese