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Finals Vocab

Petroleum Flammable liquid mixture formed from decay of ancient animals
Nuclear fusion Converting mass into energy by combining atomic nuclei at high temperature
Fission Process of splitting U-235 atoms to produce thermal energy
Photovoltaic cell Convert radiant energy directly into electricity
Geothermal energy Thermal energy contained in and around magma
Medium of wave Physical environment through which a disturbance can travel
Period Time it takes for a cycle to occur
Frequency Number of cycles per unit of time
Transverse wave A wave whose particles vibrate perpendicular to the direction that the wave is traveling
Compression Region where density and pressure are at max
Rarefaction Region where density and pressure are at minimum
Sound waves Compression waves produces by vibrating objects
Ultrasonic waves Sound waves above 20,000 hz
Audible sound waves Sound waves between 20 Hz and 20,000 Hz
Infrasonic waves Sound waves with frequency below 20 hz
Electromagnetic waves Waves produces by the oscilatting magnetic and electric fields that surround vibrating objects
Radio waves Electromagnetic waves with wavelengths longer than 10 cm
Microwaves Electromagnetic waves with wavelengths between 0.1 mm and 30 mm
Infrared waves Waves between 1/1000 m and 700 billionth of a meter
Visible light Waves between 400nm and 700nm
Ultraviolet waves Waves between 400 billionth to 10 billionth of a meter
X-rays Waves between 10 billionth of a meter to 10 trillionths of a meter
Gamma rays Waves with wavelenghts shorter than 100 trillionths of a meter
Translucent Some light passes through
Transparent All light passes through
Opaque No light Passes through
Refraction Bending of waves caused by a change in their speed when entering a new material
Primary colors of light Red, blue, and green Mix all=white
Primary pigment colors Magenta cyan and yellow
Convex lens Thicker in middle and thinner on outside Seeing long distance
Concave lens Thicker on outside and thinner on inside Seeing short distance
Crystalline solid Particles have specific geometric shape
Amorphous solid No specific melting point
Sublimation Solid to gas
Deposition Gas to solid
Archimedes principle Buoyant force is = weight of fluid displaced by object
Pascal principle Pressure applied to a fluid is transmitted throughout the fluid
Venture effect Narrowing stream of a fluid increases the velocity
Boyless law When volume and pressure have an indirect relationship when temperature is held constant
Charles law When volume and temperature have a direct relationship when pressure is held constant
Gay-lussac law When pressure and temperature have a direct relationship when volume is held constant
Heterogeneous mixture Materials remain distinct
Homogenous mixture Mixture which is well blended
Isotopes Atoms of the same element that have different number of nuetrons
Valance electrons Electrons in the outermost level of an atom
Henry Mosely Created modern periodic table
Dimitri mendeleev Created first periodic table. Organized by atomic mass
Groups Vertical colounms in periodic table
Periods Row on periodic table
Ductile Can be drawn into wires
Malleable Easily bent or pounded into sheets
Chemical bond Force that holds atoms together in a compound
Ionic bond Type of bond formed when electrons ate transferred between atoms
Ion A charged particles that has either more or fewer electrons than protons
Oxidation number Combining ability of an atom
Covalent bond The attraction that forms between atoms when they share electrons
Non-polar covalent bonds Electrons are shared equally between atoms
Polar covalent bond Electrons are shared unequally
Polar molecule The unequal sharing of electrons that results in a slightly positive and slightly negative end to a molecule
Non-polar molecule Molecule ghat does not have oppusitely charged ends
Hydrate A compound that has water molecules built into it
Balance chemical equation Chemical equation with the same number of atoms of each elements on both sides of the equation
Synthesis reaction Two or more substances combine to form another substance
Decomposition reaction When one substance breaks down into two or more su substances
Single displacement reaction One element replaces another in a compound
Double displacement The positive ions of one compound replaces the positive ions of another compound to make two new compounds
Exergonic reaction Chemical reaction that releases energy
Exothermic Chemical reaction in which thermal energy is released
Endergonic reaction Chemical reaction that absorbs energy
Endothermic reaction Chemical reaction that absorbs thermal energy
Reaction rate Increase temp concentration pressure and surface area
Catalysts A substance that speeds up a chemical reaction without changing itself
Enzyme Biological catalyst
Inhiboter Substance that slows down a chemical reaction or prevent a reaction from happening
Solution Homogenous mixture
Solute Substance being dissolved in a solution
Solvent Substance in a larger quantity that is doing the dissolving
Alliy Mixture of elements with metallic properties
Dilute Relatively small amount of solute in solvent
Concentrated Large amount of soluts
Ionization The process in whichpositive and negative ions of an ionic solid mix whith solvent to forma solution
Titration The process in which a solution of known concentration is used to determine the concentration of another solution
Fractional distillation Process that separates petroleum hydrocarbons
Coal Solid fossil fuel that can be mined
Group 1 of periodic table Alkali metals
Group 2 of periodic table Alkaline earth metals
Group 3-12 of periodic table Transition metals
Group 13 of periodic table Boron group
Group 14 of periodic table Carbon group
Group 15 of periodic table Nitrogen group
Group 16 of periodic table Oxygen group
Group 17 of periodic table Halogens
Group 18 of periodic table Noble gases
Amplitude The max displacementfrom the equilibrium
Diffraction The bending of waves around a barrier
Photon Massless bundle of energy that behaves as a particle
Incadesent light Generated by heating a metal filament
Coherent light Light of only one wavelength that travels in one direction
Incoherent light Light that can have more than one wavelength
Transceiver Device that both sends and recieves radio waves
Created by: football019