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medical terminology

medical terminology CH 1-3

gastr/o stomach
enter small intestine
gastroenteritis inflammation of the stomach
-itis inflammation
my/o muscle
myel/o spinal cord
oste/o bone
neur/o nerve
arthr/o joint
-plasty surgical repair
-rrhaphy surgical suturing
neuroplasty surgical repair of nerve
neurorrhaphy suturing together the ends of a severed nerve
tonsill tonsils
-ectomy surgical removal
tonsillitis inflammation of tonsils
tonsillectomy surgical removal of the tonsils
cyan/o blue
cyanosis blue discoloration of skin caused by a lack of adequate oxygen in the blood
-osis abnormal condition or disease
erythr/o red
erythrocyte mature red blood cell
-cyte cell
leuk/o white
leukocyte white blood cell
melan/o black
melanosis any condition of unusual deposits of black pigment in body tissue or organs
poli/o gray
poliomyelitis viral infection of the gray nerve tissue of the spinal cord
suffixes as noun endings -a, -um, -y, -e, -us
suffixes meaning "pertaining to" -ac, -al, -an, -ar, -ary, -eal, -ical, -ial, -ic, -ine, -ior, -ory, -ous, -tic
suffixes meaning "abnormal conditions" -ago, -esis, -ia, -iasis, -ion, -ism, -osis
cardi heart
gastrosis any disease of the stomach
pathology study of all aspects of diseases
path disease
-ology study of
-algia pain and suffering
gastralgia stomachache
-dynia pain
gastrodynia pain in the stomach
gastritis inflammation of the stomach
-megaly enlargement
hepatomegaly abnormal enlargement of the liver
hepat/o liver
-malacia abnormal softening
arteriomalacia abnormal softening of the walls of an artery or arteries
arteri/o artery
-sclerosis abnormal hardening
-necrosis tissue death
arterionecrosis tissue death of the artery or arteries
arteriosclerosis abnormal hardening of the walls of an artery or arteries
-stenosis abnormal narrowing
arteriostenosis abnormal narrowing of an artery or arteries
-centesis surgical puncture to remove fluid for diagnostic purposes or to remove excess fluid
abdominocentesis surgical puncture of the abdominal cavity to remove fluid
abdomen/o abdomen
-graphy process of producing a picture or record
angiography process of producing a radiographic study of blood vessels after the injection of a contrast medium to make these blood vessels visible
angi/o blood vessels
-gram picture or record
angiogram the resulting film that is produced by angiography
-scopy visual examination
arthroscopy visual examination of the internal structure of a joint
-rrhage abnormal excessive fluid discharge
-rrhagia bleeding or severe bleeding
hem/o blood
hemorrhage loss of a large amount of blood in a short period of time
-rrhea flow or discharge and refers to most body fluids
diarrhea frequent flow of loose or water stools
dia- through
myorrhaphy surgical suturing of a muscle wound and includes the us of sutures, staple, or surgical glue
nat pertaining to birth
prenatal time and event before birth
perinatal refers to time and events surrounding birth
peri- surrounding
pre- before
postnatal refers to time an events after birth
post- after
ab- away from, negative, absent
dextr/o right side
ex- out of, outside, away from
macro- large, abnormal size, or long
mega-, megal/o large, great
ad- toward to, in the direction of
sinister/o left side
in- in, into, not, without
micr/o, micro- small
olig/o scanty, few
ab- away from
dys- bad, difficult, or painful
hyper- excessive or increased
hypertension higher than normal blood presure
inter- between or among
interstitial between, but not within, the parts of a tissue
sub- under, less, or below
subcostal below a rib or ribs
addiction being drawn toward or having a strong dependence on a drug or substance
eu- good, normal, well or easy
eupnea easy or normal breathing
hypo- deficient or decreased
hypotension lower than normal blood pressure
intra- within or inside
intramuscular within the muscle
super-, supra- above or excessive
supracostal above or outside the ribs
ot/o ear
rhin/o nose
laryng larynx or throat
otorhinolaryngology the study of the ear, nose and throat
lithotomy surgical removal of a stone, or an examination position which patient is lying on back feet and legs raised
edema swelling caused by an abnormal accumulation of fluid in cells, tissues or cavities of the body
appendicitis inflammation of the appendix
phalanges plural form, for the bones of the fingers and toes
phalanx singular form, for bones of the fingers and toes
end- within
endarterial pertaining to the interior or lining of an artery
ather/o plaque or fatty substance
-oma tumor
atheroma fatty deposit within the wall of an artery
arthralgia pain in joint
col colon
-ostomy surgical creation of an artificial opening
colostomy the surgical creation of an artificial excretory opening between the colon and the body surface
-otomy cutting or a surgical incision
colotomy surgical incision into the colon
sign objective evidence of disease, such as fever
diagnosis the identification of a disease
acute condition has rapid onset, a severe course, and a relatively short duration
disease a condition in which one or more body parts are not functioning normally.
symptom subjective evidence of a disease, such as pain or a headache
differential diagnosis also known as rule out. is an attempt to determine which one of several possible diseases is causing the signs and symptoms that are present
remission the temporary, partial, or complete disappearance of the symptoms of a disease without having achieved a cure
acronym is a word formed from the initial letter of the major parts of a compound term
fissure is a groove or crack-like sore of the skin
fistula is an abnormal passage, usually between two internal organs or leading from an organ to the surface of the body
ileum is the last and longest portion of the small intestine
ilium is part of the hip bone
meningitis inflammation of the meninges
mening meninges
tendinitis inflammation of a tendon
tendin tendon
infection is the invasion of the body by a pathogenic organism (disease-producing)
malaise is a word of French origin referring to a feeling of general discomfort or uneasiness that is often the first indication of an infection or other disease
exudate is a fluid, such a pus that leaks out of an infected wound
inflammation is localized response to an injury or to the destruction of tissues
laceration is a torn or jagged wound or an accidental cut
lesion is a pathologic change of the tissues due to disease or injury
mucous describes the specialized membranes that line the body cavities
mucus is the name of the fluid secreted by these mucous membranes
myc/o fungus
mycosis describes any abnormal condition or disease caused by a fungus
myelopathy describes any pathologic change or disease in the spinal cord
myopathy describes any pathologic change or disease of muscle tissue
-ologist specialist
dermat skin
dermatologist specialist that diagnoses and treats disorders of the skin
neonatology study of disorders of the newborn
neo- new
palpation is an examination technique in which the examiner's hands are used to feel the texture, size, consistency, and location of certain body parts
palpitation is a pounding or racing heart
pyel/o renal pelvis
pyelitis inflammation of the renal pelvis
py/o pus
pyoderma any acute inflammatory, pus-forming bacterial skin infection such as impetigo
pyr/o fever or fire
pyrosis heartburn
supination is the act of rotating the arm so that the hand is forward or upward
suppuration is the formation or discharge of pus
triage is the medical screening of patients to determine their priority of need and proper place of treatment
trauma wound or injury
viral pertaining to a virus
virile having the nature, properties, or qualities of an adult male
anatomy the study of the structures of the body
physiology the study of the functions of the structures of the body
physi nature or physical
anatomical position describes the body standing: standing up straight, facing forward, arms at side, hands turned with palms face to the front
body planes imaginary vertical and horizontal lines used to divide the body into sections for descriptive purposes
vertical plane an up-and-down plane that is at a right angle to the horizon
sagittal plane is a vertical plane that divides the body into unequal left and right portions
midsagittal plane (midline) divides the body into equal left and right halves
frontal plane a vertical plane that divides the body into anterior and posterior portions
anterior front
posterior back
horizontal plane is a flat, crosswise plane
transverse plane a horizontal plane that divides the body into superior and inferior portions
inferior lower
superior upper
ventral refers to the front, or belly side, of the organ or body
dorsal refers to the back of the organ or body
cephalic toward the head
cephal head
caudal toward the lower part of the body
caud tail or lower part of the body
proximal situated nearest the midline or beginning of a body structure
distal situated farthest from the midline or beginning of a body structure
medial the direction toward or nearer the midline
lateral the direction toward or nearer the side of the body, away from the midline
dorsal cavity located along the back of the body and head, contains organs of the nervous system that coordinate body functions and divided into two portions: cranial cavity and spinal cavity
cranial cavity located within the skull, surrounds and protects the brain
spinal cavity located within the spinal column, surrounds and protects the spinal cord
ventral cavity located along the front of the body, contains the body organs that sustain homeostasis
homeostasis process through which the body maintains a constant internal environment
home/o constant
thoracic cavity (chest cavity or thorax) surrounds and protects the heart and lungs
abdominal cavity the space formed by hip bones and contains the organs of the reproductive and excretory systems
abdominopelvic cavity refers to these two cavities as a single unit (abdomen and pelvic)
inguinal relating to the groin, the entire lower area of the abdomen
right and left hypochondriac regions covered by lower ribs
chondr/i cartilage
epigastric region located above the stomach
epi- above
right and left lumbar regions located near the inward curve of the spine
lumb lower back
umbilical region surrounds the umbilicus (belly button or navel)
right and left iliac regions located near the hip bones
hypogastric region located below the stomach
peritoneum a multilayered membrane that protects and holds the organs in place within the abdominal cavity
membrane thin layer of tissue that covers a surface, lines a cavity or divides a space or organ
parietal peritoneum is the outer layer of the peritoneum that lines the interior of the abdominal wall
mesentery is a fused double layer of the parietal peritoneum that attaches parts of the intestine to the interior abdominal wall
visceral peritoneum is the inner layer of the peritoneum that surrounds the organs of the abdominal cavity
visceral relating to the internal organs
retroperitoneal located behind the peritoneum
retro- behind
peritonitis inflammation of the peritoneum
cytology study of the anatomy, physiology and chemistry of the cell
cyt cell
cytologist specialist in the study and analysis of cells
cell membrane the tissue that surrounds and protects the contents of a cell from external environment
cytoplasm the material within the cell membrane that is not part of the nucleus
plasm formative material of cells
nucleus is surrounded by nuclear membrane, is a structure within the cell. controls the activities of the cell and helps the cell divide
stem cells unspecialized cells that are able to renew themselves for long periods of time by cell division
adult stem cells somatic stem cells. undifferentiated cells found among differentiated cells in tissues or organs (they maintain and repair tissue were they are found)
hemopoietic blood forming
embryonic stem cells undifferentiated cells that are unlike any specific adult cell; they have an important ability to form any adult cell
embry/o fertilized ovum
genetics the study genes
gene producing
genome the complete set of genetic information of an organism
chromosome a genetic structure located within the nucleus of each cell
somatic cell any cell in the body except the gametes
gamete sperm or egg
genetic mutation a change of the sequence of DNA molecule
genetic disorder (hereditary disorder) a pathological condition caused by an absent or defective gene
cystic fibrosis a genetic disorder that is present at birth and affects both the respiratory and digestive systems
down syndrome a genetic variation that is associated with a characteristic facial appearance, learning disabilities, developmental delays, and physical abnormalities
hemophilia hereditary bleeding disorders in which a blood-clotting factor is missing.
Huntington's disease a genetic disorder that causes nerve degeneration with symptoms that most often appear in midlife. the damage eventually results in uncontrolled movements and the loss of some mental abilities
muscular dystrophy genetic disease characterized by progressive weakness and degeneration of the skeletal muscles that control movement.
phenylketonuria (PKU) a rare genetic disorder which the essential digestive enzyme, phenylalanine hydroxylase, is missing
tissue group or layer of similarly specialized cells that join together to perform certain specific functions
histology microscopic study of the structure, composition, and function of tissues
histologist a non-physician specialist who studies the microscopic structure of tissues
hist tissue
epithelial tissue forms a protective covering for all the internal and external surfaces of the body
epithelium specialized tissue that forms the epidermis of the skin and surface layer of mucous membranes
endothelium specialized epithelial tissue that lines the blood and lymph vessels, body cavities, glands, and organs
connective tissues support and connect organs and other body tissues
dense connective tissues bone and cartilage, forms the joints, and framework of the body
adipose tissue FAT, provides protective padding, insulation and support
adip fat
lose connective tissue surrounds various organs and supports both nerve cell and blood vessels
liquid connective tissue blood and lymph, transport nutrients and waste products throughout the body
muscle tissue contains cells with specialized ability to contract and relax
nerve tissue contains cells with the specialized ability to react to stimuli and to conduct electrical impulses
aplasia the defective development or congenital absence of an organ or tissue
hypoplasia the incomplete development of an organ or tissue usually due to a deficiency in the number of cells
-plasia formation
anaplasia a change in the structure of cells and in their orientation to each other
ana- backward
dysplasia the abnormal development or growth of cells, tissues or organs
hyperplasia the enlargement of an organ or tissue because of the abnormal increase in the number of cells in the tissues
hypertrophy a general increase in bulk of a body part or organ that is due to an increase in the sixe but not number, of cells in tissues
-trophy development
gland a group of specialized epithelial cells that are capable of producing secretions
secretion the substance produced by a gland
exocrine glands secrete chemical substance into ducts that lead either to other organs or out of the body, like sweat glands
endocrine glands produce hormones. directly into the bloodstream and then transported to organs and structure throughout the body
crine secrete
aden gland
adenoids refer to a mass of gland-like lymphoid tissue at the back of the upper pharynx
adenitis inflammation of a gland
adenocarcinoma a malignant tumor that originates in glandular tissue
carcin cancerous
malignant harmful, capable of spreading and potentially life threatening
adenoma benign tumor that arises in and resembles glandular tissue
benign not life threatening
adenomalcia the abnormal softening of a gland
adenosis any disease or condition of a gland
adenosclerosis the abnormal hardening of a gland
adenectomy the surgical removal of a gland
organ somewhat independent part of the body that performs a specific function
pathology the study of disease
pathologist a physician who specializes in the laboratory analysis of disease tissue samples to confirm or establish a diagnosis
etiology the study of the causes of diseases
eti- cause
transmission the spread of disease
contamination a pathogen is possibly present
communicable disease contagious disease, any condition that is transmitted from one person to another either directly or by indirect contact with contaminated objects
communicable capable of being transmitted
indirect contact transmission situations in which a susceptible person is infected by contact with a contaminated surface
bloodborne transmission spread of disease through contact with infected blood or other body fluids that are contaminated with infected blood
droplet transmission spread of disease such as measles, cold and flu through large respiratory droplets sprayed by coughing or sneezing onto a nearby person or object
food-borne transmission (fecal-oral transmission) is caused by eating or drinking contaminated food or water that has not been properly treated to remove contamination or kill pathogens present
vector-borne transmission the spread of certain disease due to the bite of a vector
vector describes insects or animals such as flies, mites, fleas, ticks, rats, and dogs that are capable of transmitting a disease
epidemiologist specialist in the study of outbreaks of disease within a population group
dem/i population
endemic the ongoing presence of a disease within a population, group, or area
epidemic a sudden and widespread outbreak of a disease within a specific population group or area
pandemic to an outbreak of a disease occurring over a large geographic area, possibly worldwide
functional disorder produces symptoms for which no physiological or anatomical cause can be identified
iatrogenic illness an unfavorable response due to prescribed medical treatment
idiopathic disorder an illness without know cause
idi/o peculiar to the individual
infectious disorder an illness caused by living pathogenic organisms such as bacteria or viruses
nosocomial infection a disease acquired in a hospital or clinic setting
organic disorder produces symptoms caused by detectable physical changes in the body
congenital disorder an abnormal condition that exist at the time of birth
congenital existing at birth
developmental disorder (birth defects), resulting in an anomaly or malformation such as absence of a limb or presence of an extra toe
anomaly a deviation from what is regarded as normal
atresia describes the congenital absence of a normal body opening or the failure of a structure to be tubular
prenatal influences mother's health, her behavior and prenatal medical care she does or does not receive before delivery
fetal alcohol syndrome baby has physical or behavioral traits due to mother consuming alcohol during pregnancy
geriatrics or gerontology study of medical problems and care of older people
general practitioner (GP) provides ongoing care for patients of all ages
internist physician who specializes in diagnosing and treating diseases and disorders of internal organs and related body systems
pediatrician physician specializing in diagnosing, treating, and preventing disorders and diseases of infant and children
geriatrician physician who specializes in older people
nurse practitioner (NP) nurse with graduate training who often works as a primary care provider
physician assistant (PA) a licensed professional who works under the supervision of a physician
medical receptionist schedules and registers patients for appointments and also may work as a medical assistant
medical assistant performs administration and clinical tasks
medical coder reviews patients medical records and assigns medical codes for treatments and services
ossification process which fragile membranes and cartilage start turning into bone
osteoclasts break down old and damage bone
osteoblasts help rebuild the bone
periosteum fibrous tissue that forms the outermost covering of bone
oste bone
compact bone (cortical bone) dense, hard and very strong bone that forms the protective outer layer of bone
spongy bone (cancellous bone) porous, which makes it lighter and weaker than compact bone. location of red bone marrow,
medullary cavity the central cavity located in the shaft of long bones, where it is surrounded by compact bone. where red and yellow bone marrow is stored
medullary pertaining to the inner section
endosteum tissue that lines the medullary cavity
red bone marrow located in spongy bone. is a hemopoietic tissue that manufactures red blood cells, hemoglobin, white blood cells, and thrombocytes
hemopoietic formation of blood cells
yellow bone marrow functions as fat storage area. located in the medullary cavity of long bones
cartilage smooth, rubbery, blue-white connective tissue that acts as a shock absorber between bones
articular cartilage covers the surfaces of bones where they articulate to form joints. this type of cartilage allows for smooth movement and protects bones from rubbing against each other
meniscus is the curved, fibrous cartilage found in some joints, such as the knee and temporomandibular joint of the jaw
diaphysis the shaft of a long bone
epiphyses are wider ends of the long bone
foramen an opening in a bone through blood vessels, nerves, and ligaments pass
process normal projection on the surface of a bone that most commonly serves as an attachment for muscle or tendon
fibrous joints inflexible layers of dense connective tissue, hold bones tightly together
joints are the place of union between two or more bones. classified according to their construction or based on the degree of movement they allow
fontanelles (soft spot) present on the skull of new borns
cartilaginous joints allow only slight movement and consist of bones connected entirely by cartilage. ex: pubic symphysis
synovial joint created where two bones articulate to permit a variety of motions. ex: ball and socket, hinge joints
ligaments bands of fibrous tissue that form joints by connecting one bone to another bone or by joining bone to cartilage. ex: knee
bursa a fibrous ac that acts as cushion to ease movement in areas that are subject to friction. ex: shoulder, elbow, knee
axial skeleton protects major organs of the nervous, respiratory, and circulatory systems. consists of 80 bones.
appendicular skeleton makes body movements possible and protects the organs of digestion, excretion, and reproduction. consist of 126 bones
ankylosis loss or absence of mobility in a joint due to disease, injury or surgical procedure
ankl crooked or bent or stiff
adhesive capsulitis (frozen shoulder) painful anklyosis of the shoulder
capsule little box
arthrosclerosis stiffness of the joints
baker's cyst (popliteal cyst) fluid fill sac behind knee
bursitis inflammation of a bursa
burs bursa
chondromalacia abnormal softening of cartilage
chondr/o cartilage
costochondritis inflammation of the cartilage that connects a rib to the sternum
hallux valgus (bunion) abnormalenlargement of the joint at the base of the great toe
hallux big toe
valgus bent
hemarthrosis blood within a joint
polymyalgia rheumatica inflammation disorder of the muscles and joints characterized by pain and stiffness in the neck, shoulders, upper arms, and hips and thighs
poly- many
sprain occurs when a ligament that connects bones to joints is wrenched or torn
synovitis inflammation of the synovial membrane that results in swelling and pain of the affected joint
synov synovial membrane
dislocation (luxation) the total displacement of a bone from its joint
subluxation the partial displacement of a bone from its joint
arthritis inflammation condition of one or more joints
osteoarthritis (wear and tear arthritis) commonly associated with aging. degenerative joint disease. wearing away of the articular cartilage within joints
degenerative breaking down or impairment of a body part
osteophytes bone spurs
spondylosis (spinal arthritis) degenerative disorder can cause the loss of normal spinal structure and function
spondyl vertebrae
gout (gouty arthritis) arthritis characterized by deposits of uric acid crystals in the joint
rheumatoid arthritis (RA) chronic autoimmune disorder in which joints and some organs of other body systems are attacked
ankylosing spondylitis a form of rheumatoid arthritis that primarily causes inflammation of the joints between the vertebrae
ankylosing progressive stiffing of a joint or joints
juvenile rheumatoid arthritis autoimmune disorder affecting children 16 years or younger
herniated disk (slipped or ruptured disk) the breaking apart of an intervertebral disk that results in pressure on the spinal nerve roots
lumbago pain in lumbar region of the spine
lumb lumbar
-ago diseased condition
spondylolisthesis forward slipping movement of the body of one of the lower lumbar vertebrae on the vertebrae or sacrum
-listhesis slipping
spina bifida congenital defect that occurs during early pregnancy when the spinal canal fails to close completely around the spinal cord to protect it
bifida split
kyphosis abnormal increase in the outward curvature of the thoracic spine as view from the side (humpback, dowager's hump)
kyph hump
lordosis abnormal increase in the forward curvature of the lumbar spine
lord bent backward
scoliosis abnormal lateral (sideways) curvature of the spine
scoli curved
avascular necrosis area of bone tissue death caused by insufficient blood flow
vascul blood vessels
necrosis tissue death
craniostenosis malformation of the skull due to the premature closure of the cranial sutures
crani/o skull
-stenosis abnormal narrowing
osteitis inflammation of a bone
osteomalacia (adult rickets) abnormal softening of bones in adults
osteomyelitis an inflammation of the bone marrow and adjacent bone
paget's disease chronic bone disease of unknown cause named for Sir James Paget. abnormal breakdown of bone, usually in the pelvis, skull, spine, and legs
periostitis inflammation of the periosteum
Rickets deficiency disease occurring in children. defective bone growth resulting from lack of vitamin D
short statue (dwarfism) condition resulting from failure of the bones of the limbs to grow to an appropriate length
talipes (clubfoot) congenital deformity of the foot involving the talus (ankle bone)
primary bone cancer rare malignant tumor that originates in a bone
secondary bone cancer tumors that have metastasized to bones from another organ
myeloma a type of cancer that occurs in blood making cells found in red bone marrow
osteochondroma a benign bony projection covered with cartilage
osteoporosis marked loss of bone density and increase in bone porosity that is frequently associated with aging
osteopenia thinner-than-average bone density
-penia deficiency
compression fracture (vertebral crush fracture) occurs when the bone is pressed together on itself
Colles' fracture (fractured wrist) fracture occurs at the lower end of the radius when a person tries to stop a fall by landing on hands
osteoporotic hip fracture (broken hip) caused by weakening of the bones due to osteoporosis, can be spontaneously or a result from fall
osteoporotic pertaining to or caused by the porous condition of bones
fracture broken bone
closed fracture (simple fracture or complete fracture) bone is broken, but no open wound in the skin
open fracture (compound fracture) bone is broken and there is an open wound in the skin
comminuted fracture bone is splintered or crushed
greenstick fracture (incomplete fracture) bone is bent and only partially broken
oblique fracture occurs at an angle across the bone
pathologic fracture weakened bone breaks under normal strain
spiral fracture fracture in which the bone has been twisted apart
stress fracture is an overuse injury, is a small crack in the bone that often develops from chronic excessive impact
transverse fracture fracture occurs straight across the bone
fat embolus form when a long bone is fractured and fat cells from yellow marrow are released into the blood
crepitation (crepitus) the grating sound heard when the ends of a broken bone move together
callus forms as a bulging deposit around the area of the break, also means thickening of the skin caused by repeated rubbing
radiograph (x-ray) x-radiation to visualize bone fractures and other abnormalities
arthroscopy visual examination of the internal structure of a joint
bone marrow biopsy diagnostic test that may be necessary after abnormal types or numbers of red or white blood cells are found in a complete blood count test
bone marrow aspiration the use of a syringe to withdraw tissue from the red bone marrow
magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) used to image soft tissue structures
allogenic originating within another
autologous originating within an individual
orthotic mechanical appliance
prosthesis substitute for a diseased or missing body part
arthrodesis (surgical ankyloses) surgical fusion (joining together) of two bones to stiffen a joint
arthrolysis surgical loosening of an ankylosed joint
lysis loosening or setting free
arthroscopic surgery a minimally invasive procedure for the treatment of interior of a joint
chondroplasty surgical repair of damaged cartilage
synovectomy surgical removal of a synovial membrane
arthroplasty surgical repair of a damaged joint
percutaneous diskectomy performed to treat herniated disk
percutaneous performed through the skin
percutaneous vertebroplasty performed to treat osteoporosis-related compression fractures
laminectomy the surgical removal of a lamina or posterior portion of a vertebra
spinal fusion technique to immobilize part of the spine by joining together two or more vertebrae
fusion join together
craniectomy surgical removal of a portion of the skull
craniotomy surgical incision or opening into the skull
cranioplasty surgical repair of the skull
osteoclasis surgical fracture of bone to correct a deformity
ostectomy surgical removal of bone
osteorrhaphy surgical suturing or wiring together of bones
osteotomy the surgical cutting of a bone
periosteotomy an incision through the periosteum to the bone
closed reduction (manipulation) the attempted realignment of the bone involved in a fracture or joint dislocation
immobilization (stabilization) act of holding, suturing, or fastening the bone in a fixed position with strapping or a cast
traction a pulling force exerted on a limb in a distal direction in an effort to return the bone or joint to normal alignment
external fixation a fracture treatment procedure in which pins are placed through the soft tissues and bone so that an external appliance can be used to hold the pieces of bone firmly in place during healing
internal fixation (open reduction internal fixation (ORIF)) a fracture treatment in which a plate or pins are placed directly into the bone to hold the broken pieces in place
Created by: dgraves