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words/phrases Schools & Society

accountability The process of requiring students to demonstrate understanding of the topics they study as measured by standardized tests, as well as holding educators at all levels responsible for students’ performance.
assessment How student understanding is measured
curriculum The knowledge and skills that teachers teach and students are supposed to learn.
extrinsic rewards Rewards that come from outside oneself, such as job security and vacations.
intrinsic rewards Rewards that come from within oneself and are personally satisfying for emotional or intellectual reasons.
merit pay A supplement to a teacher’s base salary intended to reward superior performance or work in a highneed area.
professionalism An occupation characterized by a specialized body of knowledge with emphasis on autonomy, decision making, reflection, and ethical standards for conduct.
reflection The process of teachers’ thinking about and analyzing their work to assess its effectiveness.
reforms Suggested changes in teaching and teacher preparation intended to increase the amount students learn.
standards Statements specifying what students should know and what skills they should have upon completing an area of study.
decision-making Problem solving in ill-defined situations, based on professional knowledge.
portfolio A collection of representative work materials to document developing knowledge and skills.
ethics Sets of moral standards for acceptable professional behavior.
technician A person who uses specific skills to complete well-defined tasks.
professional portfolio A professional's collection of representative work materials to document developing knowledge and skills.
normal schools Two-year institutions developed in the early 1800s to prepare prospective elementary teachers.
academy A secondary school that focused on the practical needs of colonial America as a growing nation.
assimilation A process of socializing people so that they adopt dominant social norms and patterns of behavior.
character education A curriculum approach to developing student morality suggesting that moral values and positive character traits, such as honesty and citizenship, should be emphasized, taught, and rewarded.
common school movement A historical attempt to make education available to all children in the United States.
compensatory education programs Government attempts to create more equal educational opportunities for disadvantaged youth.
comprehensive high school A secondary school that attempts to meet the needs of all students by housing them together and providing curricular options (e.g., vocational or college-preparatory programs) geared toward a variety of student ability levels and interests.
English classical school A free secondary school designed to meet the needs of boys not planning to attend college.
Head Start A federal compensatory education program designed to help 3- to 5-year-old disadvantaged children enter school ready to learn.
Junior High Schools Schools that were originally designed in the early 1900s to provide a unique academic curriculum for early adolescent youth.
Latin Grammar Schools A college-preparatory school originally designed to help boys prepare for the ministry or, later, for a career in law.
magnet schools Public schools that provide innovative or specialized programs that attempt to attract students from all parts of a district.
middle schools Schools, typically for grades 6–8, specifically designed to help students through the rapid social, emotional, and intellectual changes characteristic of early adolescence.
Old Deluder Satan Act Early colonial law designed to create scripture-literate citizens who would thwart Satan’s trickery.
progressivism An educational philosophy emphasizing curricula that focus on real-world problem solving and individual development.
separate but equal A policy of segregating minorities in education, transportation, housing, and other areas of public life if opportunities and facilities were considered equal to those of nonminorities-evidenced by separate schools with different curricula and resources.
Title 1 A federal compensatory education program that funds supplemental education services for low-income students in elementary and secondary schools.
Vouchers A check or written document that parents can use to purchase educational services.
War on Poverty A general term for federal programs designed to eradicate poverty during the 1960s.
Created by: jstatkus