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Module 1 S.Pharmac.

Surgical Pharmacology

ABSORPTION The drug is taken into the body and moves from the administered site into the blood. Enters systemic circulation.
ADVERSE EFFECT Undesired, potentially harmful effects of a drug. (nausea, vomiting, drug toxicity)
AGONIST Drugs that bind to or have an affinity (attraction) for a receptor and cause a particular response.
ANTAGONIST Drugs that bind to a receptor and prevent a response- also called receptor blockers.
BIOAVAILABILITY Indicates the degree to which the drug molecule reaches the site of action to exert its effects.
BIOTECHNOLOGY Refers to the concepts of genetic engineering and recombinant DNA technology.
BIOTRANSFORMATION The chemical composition of a drug is changed by a process called metabolism- occurs primarily in the liver.
BOLUS Drugs injected through an IV, all at once, is called a bolus.
CONTRAINDICATION The reasons against giving a particular drug are referred to as contraindications.
DISTRIBUTION Begins once a drug has been absorbed into the blood stream. The circulatory system transports the drug throughout the body and drug molecules eventually diffuse out of the bloodstream to the site of action.
DURATION The time between onset and the disappearance of drug effects.
EMULSION Where a medication is contained in a mixture of water and oil bound together with an emulsifier.
ENTERAL this route indicates that the medication is taken into the gastrointestinal (GI) tract, primarily by mouth (orally).
EXCRETION Medications taken into the body are eliminated in during excretion, mainly through feces, bile, skin or urine.
HYPERSENSITIVITY An adverse effect resulting from previous exposure to the drug or a similar drug.
IDIOSYNCRATIC EFFECT When the exact mechanism of an adverse drug effect is not known.
INDICATION The main reason or purpose for giving a medication.
LOCAL EFFECT The impact of a therapeutic agent on specific tissues rather than on the whole body, especially on those tissues where the agent is absorbed, metabolized, or most chemically active.
ONSET The time between administration of a drug and the first appearance of effects,
PARENTERAL Indicates any route other than the digestive tract, the most common of which are topical, subcutaneous, intramuscular, and intravenous.
PHARMACODYNAMICS Examines how the action of the drug affects the body.
PHARMACOKINETICS focuses on how the body processes drugs, from administration through four basic physiological processes: absorption, distribution, biotransformation, and excretion.
PLASMA PROTEIN BINDING Drug molecules which bind to proteins contained in plasma (albumin and globulins).
RECONSTITUTED Drugs which come in a powdered form, must be mixed or reconstituted,with a liquid to form a solution that can be administered by injection.
SIDE EFFECT A predictable but unintended effect of a drug, these are rarely serious but usually unavoidable, such as drowsiness.
SOLUBILITY ability to be dissolved
SOLUTION A mixture of drug particles (solute) fully dissolved in a liquid medium (solvent- water or saline).
SUSPENSION A form in which solid, undissolved particles float (are suspended) in a liquid (should be shaken to evenly distribute).
SYNERGIST A drug that enhances the effect of another drug .
SYSTEMIC EFFECT When the entire body is affected, or multiple organ systems.
TOPICAL Refers to medication applied to body surfaces, such as skin or mucous membranes (gels, foams, creams, lotions.)
CONTROLLED SUBSTANCES A drug or chemical whose manufacture, possession or use is regulated by the government. A drug which has been declared by federal or state law to be illegal for sale or use, but may be dispensed under a physician's prescription.
NARCOTICS Drugs which dull the senses, cannot be legally possessed, sold or transported except for medical uses for which a physician or dentist must prescribe.
DEA Drug Enforcement Administration- federal agency responsible for enforcing laws and regulations governing narcotics and controlled substances
FDA Food and Drug Administration- a federal agency responsible for monitoring trading and safety standards in the food and drug industries.
JOINT COMMISSION A US based, nonprofit tax-exempt organization that accredits health care organizations and programs in the US.
OTC Over the Counter drugs. Sold over the counter in stores and readily available.
PDR Physician's Desk Reference- a group of reference works, including books and databases, that provide information about prescription drugs.
USP-NF United States Pharmacopeia- National Formulary
Created by: mwehlage



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