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Central Rays - Skull

radiographic positioning for skull exams

QuestionAnswer
SKULL: LATERAL Perpendicular - 2" superior to EAM
SKULL: TRAUMA LATERAL (DORSAL DECUBITUS) Horizonal & perpendicular to a point 2" above EAM
SKULL: TRAUMA AP AXIAL (TOWNE) 30 degrees caudal to OML or 37 degrees to IOML
SKULL: AP AXIAL (Towne) Thru foramen magnum, 30 degrees caudal to OML or 37 degrees caudal to IOML. 2.5" above GLABELLA
SKULL: PA AXIAL (HAAS) 25 degrees cephalic to OML, entering 1.5" below INION and exiting 1.5" above NASION
SKULL: PA Perpendicular, exiting nasion
SKULL: PA (CALDWELL) 15 degrees caudal, exiting nasion
SKULL: SMV (SCHULLER) Perpendicular to IOML, between mandible at 3/4" anterior at EAM level
PARANASAL SINUSES: (LATERAL) Perpendicular, horizontal .5" - 1" posterior to outer canthus
PARANASAL SINUSES: (SMV) BASAL Perpendicular to IOML via SELLA TURCICA, 3/4" anterior to level of EAM
PARANASAL SINUSES: OPEN MOUTH (WATERS) Exit acanthion
PARANASAL SINUSES: PARIETOACANTHIAL (WATERS) Perpendicular, horizontal exiting acanthion
FRONTAL, ANTERIOR ETHMOIDAL SINUSES: PA Axial (Caldwell) Nasion at angle of 15-degrees caudal to OML
NASAL BONES: LATERAL Perpendicular to bridge of nose, 1/2" distal to nasion
FACIAL BONES: PA (MODIFIED OR SHALLOW WATERS) Perpendicular to exit acanthion
FACIAL BONES: PA AXIAL (CALDWELL) Exit nasion at 15 degrees caudal angle
FACIAL BONES: PARIETOACANTHIAL (WATERS) Perpendicular to exit acanthion
FACIAL BONES: LATERAL Perpendicular into zygomatic bones, half-way betwee OUTER CANTHUS and EAM
ORBITS: (PA AXIAL) Thru center of orbits at 30 degrees caudal
ORBITS: PARIETOACANTHIAL (MODIFIED WATERS) Perpendicular thru mid-orbits
ORBITS: (LATERAL) Perpendicular to OUTER CANTHUS
MANDIBLE: PA AXIAL - RAMI Directed 20 - 25 degrees cephalic to exit ACANTHION
MANDIBLE: AXIOLATERAL OBLIQUE 25 degrees cephalic thru mandibular region of interest
MANDIBLE: SMV Perpendicular to IOML, centered between mandible angles
ZYGOMATIC ARCHES: (SMV) Perpendicular to IOML, entering MSP of throat at level 1" posterior to OUTER CANTHUS
MANDIBLE: PA Perpendicular to lip level
TMJ: AP AXIAL 35 degrees caudal, centered between TMJs.
Created by: rad1958tech