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Cognition

the process whereby we acquire and use language/knowledge

TermDefinition
cognition the process whereby we acquire and use language/knowledge
information processing model computer like model describing human encoding, storing and retrieving information.
Encoding translation of information into a form in which it can be stored. Store them for the long run, how we can access them later on.
Visual see in you mind as a picture
Acoustic read list and repeat it; sequence of sounds
Semantic "related to meaning;" tried to make into phrase or sentence
Storage maintenance of encoded information over a period of time; help to improve your long and short term memory
Maintenance (ROTE) Rehearsal repeating information; shallow processing -> stays short term, just repetition
Elaborative Rehearsal relate in to information already known; deep process -> what you want to achieve. Stays for the long term
Organizational Systems files, groups classes by common features -> files in our brains
Retrieval locating stored information and returning it to conscious thought (pre-conscious)
Context-Dependent situation in which the memory was first stored. (Tip of the Tongue Phenomenon.)
State-Dependent same emotional state when first stored memories. (someone who give such distinct, detailed information on a day that gave them a lot of impact.)
Memory ability to bring to conscious awareness thing experienced, imagined or learned (Stages of Memory (3) -> sensory -> STM -> LTM
Sensory Register gateway between perception and memory; entry points for raw information from the senses.
Masking refreshing of the sensory memory
Iconic 0.5 seconds long (visual)
Echoic 3-4 Seconds long (Auditory: few seconds)
Short Term Memory briefly stores and processes selected information from the sensory registers
Working Memory process new information and relate to relevant information in the LTM
Chunking grouping together items into manageable units.
Long Term Store relatively permanent memories and knowledge. (most info. semantically coded) (elaborate rehearsal {deep processing} )
Episodic Memory specific events we ourselves have experienced.
Semantic Memory facts, figures and general world knowledge.
Procedural skills and habits
Emotional learned emotional responses to various stimuli
explicit readily expressed, are aware of intentionally retrieved (episodic and semantic) "Effortful" = attention and conscious effort
implicit not readily expressed, may not be aware of, cannot be intentionally retrieved, (procedural and emotional) "automatic" = unconscious and incidental
Schemas (Top down) organize bits of information into knowledge; set of belief/ expectations about something/ someone (events, situations, interactions, people) influence perception and storage of memories.
Serial Position Effect tendencies of memory when leaving when learning a list of items.
Primacy remember early items. Predicts that we are more likely to recall items presented at the beginning of the a list.
Recency remember last items. Demonstrated by our ability to recall the items at the end of a list,
Flashbulb Memory vivid memory of an episode even in great detail. (amygdala) ex: death of Micheal Jackson, 9/11, assassination of John F. Kennedy.
Eidetic Memory photographic memory; sharp and detailed images of something seen; kept in LTM
Neurotransmitters norepinephrine and acetylcholine
STM Prefrontal and Temporal Lobes (Cortex)
LTM throughout cortex/ semantic and episodic in frontal and temporal Lobes
Hippocampus short term memory (anterograde amnesia) and transfer to LTM; conditioned responses.
Amygadala emotional
Cerebellum procedural (Basil Ganglia) Balancing
Long Term Potentiation increase in cells firing potentials after stimulation; strengthening of neural pathways.
Recognition identifying objects or events that have been encountered before.
Recall to bring it back or reconstructing your mind (ebbinghaus studied STM)
Relearning Learning again things we once knew.
Automaticity mastering a skill; achieved through long, hard repetitive practice ex) soccer, instrument... etc)
Priming exposure leads one to think/ or respond in a particular way without conscious awareness. ex) the video we watched about the man that had a weird nose, but he actually didn't.
Decay/Fading Forgetting memory overtime
Source Amnesia attribute event (memory) to different source.
Reconstruction fit together pieces of an event that seem likely. (Schema: pushing info in)
Retrograde Amensia inability to recall events preceding accident/ injury; (not effect earlier memory)
Anterograde Amnesia inability to form new memories.
Infantile Amnesia cognitive and biological factors
Repression traumatic experiences moved from our conscious to unconscious mind (Freud)
Interference new information disrupts or snores aside what is already in memory (STM ONLY HOLD LIMITED INFO.)
Mnemonic Devices systems for remembering information
Method of Loci (Location) memorize familiar locations sequentially to attach new information.
Peg Word simple rhyming method to attach new information.
Images nonverbal mental representations of the thing itself
Symbols something that represents or stands for something else.
Concepts way of grouping or classifying the world around us by common feature (Basic elements)
1) Prototype/ Typicality Degree to which an object fits the average.
2) Super Ordinant Concept very broad; encompasses a large group of items.
3) Basic Concept smaller and more specific (bread)
4) Subordinate Concept even smaller and more specific (Hawaiian sweet bread)
Creativity process of producing something novel; yet worthwhile Divergent: many solutions Convergent: narrow down choices
Nondirected (free/ choices) thought process such as daydreaming; fantiasizing
Directed reasoning; drawing inferences; problem solving (PURPOSE)
Deductive Reasoning logical conclusions from general statements
Inductive Reasoning drawing general inferences from specific observations
Serial one problem at a time; solution is input for the next.
Parallel many individual problems at once. (more memory but faster)
Algorithms systematic, mechanical approaches that guarantee an answer to the problem. A rule that guarantees the right solution by using a formula or other foolproof method.
Heuristics short cuts or rule of thumb. A rule that is generally but not always, true that we can use to make a judgment in a situation.
Decision Making Heuristics different because we know all the possible solutions or choices (compensatory)
Availability Heuristics judged by what information is available in our memories.
Representativeness Heuristics How well things/people represent particular prototypes (schemata)
Insight sudden understanding
Incubation arrive at a solution when we stand back and not work on problem. (Kohler's experiments; chimps and insight.)
Mental Set a fixed frame of mind when approaching problems (analogy)
Rigidty hinders problems solving
Flexibility overcome rigidty
Functional Fixedness tendency to assume that a given item is useful only for a particular purpose.
Confirmation Bias/ Belief Perserverance search for info. that supports a particular point of view hinders problem solving; prevents objectivity
Framing the way a question is phrased, or an item is presented; can alter the objective outcome.
Language arrangement of sounds to communicate ideas
key features arbitrary; additive structure; multiplicity of structure; productive; dynamic
Phonemes smallest units of speech sounds
Morphemes smallest semantically meaningful parts of language (comb. phonemes)
Syntax rules for arranging morphemes into meaningful sentences.
Semantics (Grammar) assign meaning (content of language)
Prosody tone and inflection added to language
Receptive ability to understand what is said to and about them (4 months)
Productive ability to produce words (10 MTS)
Babbling phonemes unrelated to home language
Holophrases single words filled with meaning; applied by infants to broad categories of things
Overextension applying individual words to larger categories (CAT)
Linguistic Determination patterns of thinking are determined by the language one speaks theory of the linguistic relatively see the world through the cultural lens of language.
Created by: annsonic
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