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Rad Tech Final

What's the horizontal or axial plane? Divides body into superior and inferior portions
What's the midsagittal plane? Divides the body into symmetric left and right
What's position name for an AP projection taken with a horizontal beam? Lateral decubits
What's position name for a lateral projection taken with a horizontal beam? Dorsal/ventral decubitus
CR for a PA finger? Proximal IP jt.
Ideal projection for thumb? AP (OID/magnification would increase if taken as a PA)
What projection is useful to observe foreign bodies in the hand? Lateral extension hand
CR for a fan lateral hand? 2nd MCP jt.
Degree of obliquely for PA oblique hand? 45°
What projection is used for rheumatoid arthritis? Why? AP oblique bilateral hands (Ball Catchers Method) because it best visualizes open joint spaces
What/where are the 2 fat pads in the wrist? Scaphoid (can be visualized below scaphoid in PA or PA oblique) and pronator (anterior to distal radius)
What projection is best to visualize the trapezium? PA oblique wrist
What type of deviation is appropriate for a scaphoid projection? Ulnar
What angle should be used for a scaphoid projection? 10-20°
Where should the thumb be for a scaphoid projection? Held together with the other fingers
How should the hand be position for an AP forearm? Supinated
What might cause significant radial crossover in an AP forearm? Pronated hand
For a lateral forearm, how should the distal radius and ulna appear? The head of the ulna should be superimposed with the radius
CR for an AP fully extended elbow? Flexion point
What two types of partially extended elbow prejections could be done? Humerus parallel to IR, or radius and ulna parallel to IR
What projection is best to view the coronoid process? Medial oblique elbow
What's seen best in a medial oblique elbow? Radial crossover, coronoid process in profile, trochlea and medial epicondyle in profile
What's seen best in a lateral oblique elbow? The radial head, neck, and tuberosity relatively free of superimposition and in profile, and the capitulation and lateral epicondyle in profile
CR for a lateral elbow? 3.5-4cm medial to olecranon process
What are the three concentric arcs visible in a lateral elbow? Sulcus, superimposed trochlea/capitulum, trochlear notch
What three fat pads are in the elbow? Anterior (anterior to distal humerus), posterior (within olecranon fossa), and supinator (anterior to proximal radius)
What elbow projection would be done if patient cannot do any extension? Acute flexion AP elbow
What two CR angles are used for an acute flexion AP elbow? Perpendicular to humerus or perpendicular to forearm
Method name for trauma axial lateral elbow projections? Coyle
Describe the Coyle Method used to best visualize the radial head and capitulum Hand pronated, elbow flexed 90°, CR 45° towards shoulder (radius and ulna will appear very separated on radiograph)
Describe the Coyle Method used to best visualize the coronoid process and trochlea Hand pronated, elbow flexed 80°, CR 45° away from shoulder (radius and ulna will appear melted together on radiograph)
Which joint (shoulder or elbow) should be included for an AP humerus? Both
Describe the epicondylar plane and greater tubercle for an AP humerus Epicondylar plane should be parallel to the IR, and the greater tubercle should be in profile laterally
What are pros of a mediolateral humerus projection over a lateromedial one? More uniform contact, decreased OID/magnification, easier on patient, decreases radiation dose
Describe the epicondylar plane for a Medio lateral humerus? Perpendicular to the IR
What are the three shoulder rotations? External (greater tubercle in profile laterally & epicondyles paralllel), internal (lesser tubercle in profile medially & epicondyles perpendicular), and neutral (both tubercles in anterior & epicondyles 45°)
CR for an AP shoulder? 2.5cm inferior to coracoid process
When should neutral shoulder rotation be used? Trauma situations
CR for full transthoracic lateral humerus and proximal transthoracic lateral humerus? Midhumerus, perpendicular to surgical neck of proximal humerus
What can be done if unaffected arm can't be totally raised up for a transthoracic lateral humerus? 10-15° cephalad angle on CR
What is the Lawrence Method? Inferosuperior axial shoulder: CR 15-30° medially into the axillary, patient supine, elbow flexed 90°, hand supinated
What is the inferosuperior axial shoulder used for? How might it be modified? Used to examine shoulder conditions (NOT fractures/dislocations), can use exaggerated external rotation for Hills-Sachs defect
Describe the superoinferior axial shoulder projection CR 5-15° through shoulder joint towards elbow, patient seated, elbow flexed 90°, hand pronated, greater OID/distortion, can see ribs on radiograph
What's the best projection to see the glenoid cavity? AP oblique glenois cavity (Grashey method)
Describe the set up for the Grashey method CR 5cm inferior and medial to superolateral border of humerus, body in 35-45° RPO/LPO, scapula needs to be parallel to IR
What's the best projection to see humeral head dislocation? Lateral scapular Y
What two important anatomical landmarks are in profile in the scapular Y? Acromion (posterior), coracoid process (anterior)
Where is arm for AP scapula? Why? Abducted 90° to move scapula laterally (want its lateral border free of superimposition)
What angle is used for an AP axial clavicle? 15-30° cephalad (greater for asthenic patients)
When are AP clavicle images taken? At end of inspiration
What must be done before doing bilateral AC joints with weights? Rule out any clavicle fractures
What SID is used for bilateral AC joints? 180cm
What breathing instructions are used for bilateral AC joints? Suspend respiration
Angle used for axial toes? 10-15° posterior
CR for oblique toes? To MTP jt.
CR for AP axial foot? 10° posterior to base of 3rd metatarsal (lower arch = 5°, higher arch = 15°)
Rotation for an oblique foot? 30-40° medially, until general anterior plane is parallel to IR
What's well demonstrated in an AP oblique foit? Cuboid and calcaneus
CR for lateral foot? Mid-cuneiforms, at level of the base of the 3rd metatarsal
Body position for a lateral foot? LPO/RPO
What rotation error occurred if fibula is superimposed with anterior half of tibia? Medial rotation elevating the forefoot
What two fat pads are found in the foot? Anterior pretalar and posterior pericapsular
What type of exams are used to investigate arch and ligament conditions? Functional weight-bearing exams
CR for AP weight-bearing feet? 15° posterior at base of metatarsals
Angle used and name of calcaneus projection? 40° cephalad, plantodorsal axial calcaneus
CR for mediolateral calcaneus? 2.5cm inferior to medial malleolus
What projection is done to check for negative or positive signs of ankle ligament injuries? AP oblique Mortise ankle with 10-20° medial rotation
What does the true AP oblique ankle best present? Distal tib/fib articulation
CR for AP knee? 1.25cm distal to apex of patella, parallel to tibial plateaus (5° caudad, no angle, or 5° cephalad)
CR for PA knee? 5-7° caudad, exits 1.25cm distal to apex of patella
AP medial oblique vs. lateral oblique knee? Medial: for tib/fib articulation, lateral: for proximal fibula (seen through the tibia)
CR for lateral knee? 5-7° cephalad, 2.5cm distal to medial epicondyle, leg flexed 20-30°
CR angle for weight-bearing knees? Perpendicular for average, 5-10° caudad for thin
CR for tunnel views? Into popliteal crease, perpendicular to lower leg (40-50°)
Patella ideally taken AP or PA? PA
Other name for Settegast Method? Tangential Axial Patella
Set-up for Settegast method?
Patient prone, leg flexed 90%, CR 15-20° cephalad into femoropatellar joint space
What rotation may be required to make condyles parallel to IR for femur exams? 5° internally
Should the knee be flexed for a lateral femur? Yes, 45°
Leg rotation for AP pelvis? 15-20° internally if non-trauma
CR for AP unilateral hip? Perpendicular to mid-femoral neck, will see greater trochanter in profile laterally
Describe lateral hip set-up CR midway between ASIS and pubic symphysis, leg abducted 90° and parallel to IR, body posteriorly obliqued so pelvis shifted towards IR
CR and abduction for frog leg hip? CR 7.5cm below ASIS (to femoral neck level), 40-45° abduction
Alternative frog leg abduction? 20-30°, decreases femoral neck distortion
What stands out about a unilateral frog leg? Pelvis is in true AP and greater trochanter is superimposed with the femur
What's another name for the elevated Judet method? AP oblique acetabulum with internal rotation
What's another name for the lowered Judet method? AP oblique acetabulum with external rotation
What's demonstrated in the elevated side of the Judet? Posterior rim of acetabulum, anterior iliopubic column, and the obturator foramen
What's demonstrated in the lowered side of the Judet? Anterior rim of the acetabulum, ilioischial column
CR for axial pelvic outlet? 30-45° cephalad for women, 20-35° cephalad for men,3-5cm distal to public symphysis
CR for axial pelvic inlet? 40° caudad at level of ASIS
Topographic landmark for the jugular notch? T2-T3
Topographic landmark for the sternal angle? T3-T4
Topographic landmark for the xiphoid tip? T9-10
Topographic landmark for the inferior costal angle? L2-L3
Body position for a PA sternum? 15-20° RAO
Trauma alternative for sternum? Do as AP with LPO body position (larger OID and magnification as consequence)
SID used for lateral sternum? 180cm
What two oblique positions can be used for a right rib injury? 45° RPO or LAO
What two oblique positions can be used for a left rib injury? 45° LPO or RAO
CR for AP rib study above diaphragm? 8-10cm below jugular notch (expose on inspiration)
CR for AP rib study below diaphragm? Midway between xiphoid process and lower ribs (taken on expiration)
How many ribs should be visualized above diaphragm? 10
CR for PA SC joints? Perpendicular to T2-T3/7cm distal to vertebral prominens (taken on expiration)
CR and body position for PA oblique SC joints?
CR 7cm distal to vertebral prominens and 2.5-5cm lateral to MSP (towards elevated side). Body in 10-15° anterior oblique
Created by: Ewood61