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Child Development Scientific study of processes of change and stability from conception through adolescence.
Quantitative change Continuous change in # or amount (height, weight, size of vocab, frequency of communication)
Qualitative change Discontinuous change in kind, structure or organization (emergence of a new phenomenon)
Bidirectional People change their world as it changes them
Physical Development Growth of body and brain, sensory capacities, motor skills, and health. May influence other aspects of development
Cognitive Development Change in stability in mental abilities, such as learning, attention, memory, language, thinking, moral reasoning and creativity
Psychosocial Development Change in stability in personality, emotional life, social relationships together
Infancy and Toddlerhood Birth-3 years (first 3 years)
Early Childhood 3-6 years
Middle Childhood 6-11 years
Adolescence 12-19/20 years
An example of Nature vs Nurture is? Wild Boy Aveyron, and Genie
Nature Biology (Heredity or genes) Inborn influences or traits
Nurture Environment (Family, neighborhood, SES, ethnicity, and culture) Nonhereditary or experiential influences
Bidirectionality Views development as interactive between child and their environment; Emerging Consensus
2 Basic Theoretical Issues 1. Is it Active or Passive? 2. Is it Continuous or are their Stages?
Passive (Mechanistic) Predictable response to an environmental input. See's development also as Quantitative: measure same ability over time
Active (Organismic) Internally initiated by an alive organism and occurs in a sequence of different stages. See's development as Qualitative: emergence of a new ability, change from nonverbal to verbal
Continuous Development is governed by same processes, enabling prediction of behavior (Mechanistic, Quantitative)
Stages Change in a kind of response. Sequence of distinct different stages (Organismic, Qualitative)
Psychoanalytic Development shaped by unconscious forces that motivate human behavior
Psychosocial Theory Proposed by Erikson, eight stages across a lifespan in which each stage involves a CRISIS in personality which balances a positive with a negative trait
Learning Perspective Changes in behavior that result from learning, or a long lasting change in behavior based on experience or adaptation to environment
Learning Perspective is dealt with what? Behaviorism- emphasizes behavior as a predictable response to an experience. (Skinner)
Classical Conditioning Based on associating a stimulus that doesn't ordinarily elicit a particular response with another stimulus that ordinarily does elicit the response
Operant Conditioning Based on the consequences of operating upon the environment through voluntary behavior. Uses reinforcement and punishment
An example of Classical Conditioning? Pavlov Dog's. Noticed dogs would salivate when they were being fed, but realized they would salivate when he entered the room even without food.
Reinforcement Increases likelihood of desired behavior, or increases chance of it being repeated.
Positive Reinforcement Giving the subject something they find desirable (Attention: best) or treats, toys, money
Negative Reinforcement Taking away something the subject doesn't like (scratching to remove an itch, doodling in class to remove boredom)
Punishment Discourages repetition of a behavior, or decreases chance of it being repeated.
Positive Punishment Giving the subject something the subject finds undesirable (getting a speeding ticket for speeding, nauseous after eating bad food)
Negative Punishment Taking away something the subject likes or finds desirable (taking away toy for fighting, getting grounded for misbehaving)
Social Learning Theory (Bandura) Behaviors are learned by observing and imitating models. *Modeling*
Cognitive Perspective Focuses on thought processes and the behaviors that reflect those processes
Cognitive Stage Theory (Piaget) Cognitive development advances in a series of 4 stages involving qualitatively distinct types of mental operations
Piaget Stages of Cognitive Development Sensorimotor, Preoperational, Concrete Operational, Formal Operational
Theory Coherent set of logical ideas that look to organize, explain and predict data
Hypothesis Tentative explanations or predictions that can be tested by further research
Sample Group of participants chosen to represent the entire population under study
Population Group to which you want to apply findings
Experimental Research Rigorously controlled, replicable procedure in which the researcher manipulates variables to asses the effect of one on the other
Experimental Group Group which receives the treatment under study
Control Group Group of people who do not receive the treatment whose effects are to be measured
Independent Variable Something that can be changed or controlled. Experimenter has direct control (Drug)
Dependent Variable The condition that may or may not change, variable being tested or measured (attention/behavior)
Longitudinal Study Study designed to assess changes in a sample over time (temperament, intelligence, vocab, aggression)
Cross Sectional Study Study designed to assess age related differences in which people of different ages are assessed on one occasion (self recognition, cognitive abilities)
Dizygotic Twins (Fraternal) (More common) Twins conceived by the union of 2 different ova (or a single unfertilized ova that has split) with 2 different sperm cells.
Monozygotic Twins (Identical- same gender) (Runs in families) Twins resulting from the division of a single zygote after fertilization.
Artificial Insemination Injection of sperm into a women's cervix
Artificial Insemination by Donor If a man is infertile, a donor may be matched with father for physical characteristics
In Viro Fertilization Fertilization done outside mothers body
Donor Egg When a women is producing poor quality ova or has had her ovaries removed (Ovum transfer)
Surrogate Mother A fertile woman impregnated by the prospective father, usually by artificial insemination
Germinal Stage Rapid cell division, increasing complexity and differentiation and implantation in the wall of uterus
How long is the Germinal Stage? Fertilization- 2 weeks
Embryonic Stage Rapid growth and development of major body systems and organs. Also known as Organogenesis
How long is the Embryonic Stage? 2- 8 weeks
Fetal Stage Now considered a fetus. Increased differentiation of body parts and greatly enlarged body size. Organs and body systems become more complex
How long is the Fetal Stage? 8 weeks- Birth
Critical Period Most vulnerable to defects
Trimister 3 month period of pregnancy
Ultrasound (Sonogram) High frequency sound waves directed at the abdomen to produce a picture of the fetus
Amniocentesis Sample of amniotic fluid is withdrawn and analyzed under guidance of ultrasound to obtain fetal cells. Tests for Sickle Cell Anemia, Down Syndrome, Spina Bifida or Muscle Dystrophy. (Not performed before 15 weeks)
Teratogenic Birth defect producing factor, environmental agent such as virus, bug, or radiation, that can interfere with normal prenatal development and cause abnormalities
1st Stage of Childbirth Dilation of the Cervix
Dilation of Cervix Longest stage, typically 12-14 hours or more for a women having her first child; regular and increasingly frequent uterine contractions cause the cervix to dilate or widen.
Characteristics of Dilation of Cervix Contractions usually are 15-20 minutes apart at first. 2-5 minutes apart toward the end of this stage. Lasts until cervix is fully open (10 cm or 4 in)
2nd Stage of Childbirth Descent and Emergence of the Baby (Pushing Stage)
Descent and Emergence of the Baby 1 or 2 hours or less; begins when the baby's head begins to move through cervix into vaginal canal, and ends when the baby emerges from mothers body
3rd Stage of Childbirth Expulsion of Placenta
Expulsion of Placenta 10 minutes to 1 hour, placenta and umbilical cord are expelled from the mother
Cesarean Delivery Delivery of baby by surgical removal from uterus by cutting through the abdomen (32% of US births)
Vaginal Delivery Method of childbirth as described in 3 stages
Risks of C-Section May deprive baby of important benefits from a normal birth (hormones that clear fluid from lungs, sends blood to heart and brain, and release oxytocin- Bonding) Could also risk uterine rupture
Natural Delivery Vaginal delivery without use of medication
Local Anesthesia (Vaginal) Called pedunal block, if mother wants or needs it, usually during 2nd stage when forceps used
Regional Anesthesia (Epidural or Spinal) 60% injected into space in spinal cord between the vertebrae in the lower region that blocks nerve pathway that would carry sensation of pain to brain. If given early it can shorten labor
APGAR Scale Standard measurement of a newborns condition; assesses appearance, pulse, grimace, activity and respiration. Immediate, short term outcomes (Done 1-5 min after birth) Scores from 1 (life threatening) to 10 (healthy)
Best APGAR Scale Rating 7-10 (98% of US babies)
Colostrum Antibody rich fluid produced in the first few days after childbirth found in breast milk (#1 benefit of breast feeding)
Reflex Behaviors Automatic, involuntary, innate responses to stimulation
Primitive Reflexes Related to instinctive needs for survival and protection
Postural Reflexes Reactions to changes in position and balance
Locomotor Reflexes Walking and swimming reflexes
Rooting Reflex AKA? Sucking
Darwinian Reflex AKA? Grasping
Plasticity Molding the brain through experience. Stimulation is needed for brain growth, and experience matters (positive and negative)
Cerebellum Allows for growth in balance, motor coordination and movement
Cerebrum Hemisphere lateralization (Cerebral Cortex)
Lateralization Tendency of each of the brain hemispheres to have specialized functions
Right Hemisphere Visual and Spatial
Left Hemisphere Language and Logical thinking
SIDS (Sudden Infant Death Syndrome) Sudden and unexplained death of an apparently healthy infant, under the age of 1 (Crib death) Leading cause of post neonatal infant death in the US
Prevention of SIDS Sleep on back, firm crib, no blankets or stuffed animals, moderate temperature
Causes of SIDS Gene mutations affecting heart, disturbance in brain mechanism that regulate breathing, defect in brain stem which regulates breathing, heart beat and arousal, and a defect in ability to use low levels of seratonin
Habituation Type of learning in which repeated or continuous exposure to a stimulus reduces, slows or stops attention to that stimulus.
Sensorimotor Stage Piaget theory, first stage in cognitive development, from birth to 2 years, during which infants learn through sensory and motor activity
Object Permanence Piaget term for realization that a person or object still exists when out of sight
Prelinguistic Speech Utterance of sounds that arent words, includes cry, coo, babble and accidental and deliberate imitation of sounds without understanding their meaning
Cry Newborn's only means of communication
Coo Sounds made between 6 weeks and 3 months when babies are happy
Babble Repeating consonant-vowel strings (6-10 months)
First words? Age 1, specifically 10-14 months
Temperament How one acts in situations and goes about doing things - its the how of behavior. Relatively stable
Easy Children Children with generally happy temperament, regular biological rhythms and a readiness to accept new experiences (40%)
Difficult Children Children with irritable temperament, irregular biological rhythms and intense emotional responses (10%)
Slow to Warm Up Children Children whose temperament is generally mild but who are hesitant about accepting new experiences (15%)
Basic Trust vs Basic Mistrust (Erikson)First crisis in psychosocial development, in which infants develop a sense of reliability of people and objects in their world
Trust Needs are being met
Mistrust Needs are not being met (Some is needed, to protect oneself)
Attachment Reciprocal, enduring tie between infant and caregiver, each of whom contribute to quality of relationship
Father of Attachment Theory? John Bowlby
Strange Situation Lab technique by Mary Ainsworth which a child (10-24 months) is left in presence of a stranger and focuses on the baby's response when mother returns (Reunion)
Best Attachment? Secure
Worst Attachment? Disorganized-Disoriented
Secure Attachment Infant cries when caregiver leaves, and seeks out caregiver upon return. Infant quickly finds comfort from caregiver in stressful situation (60-75%)
Avoidant Attachment Pattern in which infant rarely cries when separated from primary caregiver and avoids contact upon their return (15-25%)
Ambivalent (Resistant) Attachment Pattern in which infant becomes anxious before caregiver leaves, is extremely upset during absence, and both seeks and resists contact upon return (10-15%)
Disorganized Disoriented Attachment Pattern in which an infant, after being separated from caregiver, shows contradictory behavior upon their return, and instead goes up to stranger instead.
Social Context Theory Study of cognitive development which examines and focuses on environmental aspects of the learning process, particularly the influences of parents and other caregivers (Lev Vygotsky)
Guided Participation Mutual interactions with adults that help structure children's activities and bridge the gap between the children's understanding and adults
Infantile Amnesia Inability to remember events from the age of 3
Transitional Object A favorite toy or blanket repeatedly used as a bedtime companion which helps a child shift from dependency of infancy to independence of later childhood. May provide security for separation anxiety
Nightmare A frightening dream, occurring in REM Sleep, that often happens later in night. Can be triggered by staying up late, overstimulation, or a scary movie
Sleep Terror When one wakes up with intense fear and physiological symptoms, from a deep sleep (Delta waves), usually within an hour after falling asleep, often earlier in the night. Don't remember. May be more common in boys and genetics
Maltreatment Deliberate and avoidable endangerment of a child. Can be abuse or neglect, but the highest % is some form of neglect (64%)
Abuse Action taken to inflict harm
Neglect Failure to meet a child's basic needs (food, clothing, care, protection, supervision)
Physical Abuse Action taken deliberately to endanger another, involving potential bodily injury (punching, beating, burning)
Sexual Abuse Any sexual activity involving a person and a child
Emotional Maltreatment Action or inaction that may cause behavioral, cognitive, emotional or mental problems. Can be abuse (reject, terror, degrade) or it can be neglect (isolation, failure to provide support, love or affection
Scaffolding Providing the minimum of support needed
Zone of Proximal Development (ZPD) Difference between what a child can do on its own and what a child can do with help
Preoperational Stage Piaget theory, second stage in cognitive development, in which children become more sophisticated in their use of symbolic thought but arent yet able to use logic
Symbolic Function Piaget terminology, the ability to use symbols or mental representations (words, numbers, images) to which a child has attached meaning. Start to think symbolically*
Centration Tendency to focus on one aspect of a situation and neglect others
Conservation Piaget term for awareness that 2 objects that are equal will remain equal even if their appearance is altered (many tasks)
Egocentrism Piaget term for inability to consider another person POV, a characteristic of young children
3 Mountain Task Piaget experiment to measure developmental aspects of egocentrism (Primary Method)
Imaginary Friends Do realize they are not real, and goes away when real friends are present, often do have friends.
Discipline Methods of molding children's character and teaching them to exercise self control and acceptable behavior. Most effective when it is appropiate, clear, consistent and nurturing
Reinforcement Designed to increase or strengthen behavior. External is tangible (candy, money) or intangible (smile, praise) Internal is sense of pleasure/accomplishment. This kind is preferred
Punishment Designed to decrease or weaken behavior. Should be consistent, immediate, include a simple explanation, administer calmly and in private
Power assertion Disciplinary strategy designed to discourage undesirable behavior through physical or verbal enforcement of parental control. Demands, threats, withdrawal of privileges, spanking, etc
Inductive Techniques Disciplinary technique designed to induce desirable behavior by appealing to a child' sense of reason and fairness. Setting limits, firm, consistent, demonstrating logical consequences of behavior, explain, discuss, negotiate
Withdrawal of Love Disciplinary strategy that may involve ignoring, isolating, or showing dislike for a child.
Corporal Punishment Use of physical force with the intention of causing pain, but not injury to correct or control behavior (spank, hit) More frequently used with children who are aggressive and hard to manage
Authoritarian Parenting style that values control and obedience (High control, low warmth) Typical of power assertion, and corporal punishment
Permissive Parenting style that values self expression and self regulation (Low control, high warmth)
Authoritative Parenting style blending warmth and respect for a child's individuality with an effort to instill social values (High control, high warmth) Typical of inductive reasoning
Neglectful/Uninvolved Maccoby and Martin's new term to describe parents who focus on their own needs rather than those of the child. Linked to a variety of behavioral and psychological disorders (Low control, low warmth)
Created by: Mrainkss