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Science C2 test

Test on 12/8/17

Respiration the process by which cells break down simple food molecules to release the energy they contain.
Fermentation The process by which cells break down molecules to release energy without using oxygen,
mitosis The process that occurs in the formation of sex cells by which the number of chromosomes is reduced by half.
messenger RNA RNA that copies the coded message form DNA in the nucleus and carries the message into the cytoplasm.
transfer RNA RNA in the cytoplasm that carries an amino acid to the ribosome and adds it o the growing protein chain.
cell cycle the regular sequence of growth and division that cells under go.
Replication the process by which a cell makes a copy of DNA in its nucleus.
mitosis a type of cell division that results in two daughter cells each having the same number and kind of chromosomes as the parent nucleus, typical of ordinary tissue growth.
chromosome A doubled rod of condensed chromatin; contains DNA.
cancer A disease in which somebody's cells grow and divide uncontrollably, damaging the parts of the body around them
mutation A change in DNA or chromosome.
Tumor A mass of abnormal cells that develop when cancerous cells divide and grow uncontrollably.
chemotherapy the use of drugs to treat diseases like cancer.
Interphase phase #1The cell grows to its mature size, makes a copy of its DNA, and prepares to divide into two cells. Two cylindrical structures called centrioles are also copied.
prophase phase #2 chromatin in the nucleus condense to form chromosomes. The pairs of centrioles move to opposite sides of the nucleus. spindle fibers form a bridge between the ends of the cell. The the nuclear envelope breaks down.
Metaphase phase #3 the chromosomes line up across the center of the cell. Each chromosome attaches to a spindle fiber at its centromere.
anaphase phase #4 the centromeres split. The two chromatids separate and each chromatid becomes a new chromosome. New chromosomes move to opposite sides of the cell. The Cell stretches out as the opposite ends are pushed apart.
Telophase phase #5 the chromosomes begin to stretch out and lose their rodlike appearances. A new nuclear envelopes forms around each region of chromosomes.
cytokinesis Final Stage of mitosis The cell membrane pinches in around the middle of the cell. The cell splits in two. Each daughter cell ends up with an identical set of chromosomes and about half of the organelles
Three things that cells do during interphase they grow, make copies of DNA, and prepares to divide.
What are the nitrogen bases found in DNA Thymine which pairs with Aolenine: Cytosine which pairs with Guanine
what happens during respiration Cells break down simple food such as sugar and release the energy they contain.
Raw materials of respiration oxygen and sugar
products of respiration carbon dioxide, water, and energy
Plants use _____ and produce _____ carbon dioxide, oxygen
Organisms use_____ and produce _____ oxygen and carbon dioxide
what are two types of fermentation and where do they take place alcoholic fermination; yeast and lactic acid fermination; body
what can cause cancer to BEGIN A change in DNA that affects the cell cycle( also known as a mutation) and when a cell divides too often.
What are three ways to treat cancer Sugery, radiation, and drugs
what are somethings that are more likley to cause cancer tabacco, UV rays and smoking
Created by: Feez25