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PSYCH

Test 2

TermDefinition
Primary Tastes sweet, sour, salty, bitter, brothy (umami)
Retinal (binocular) disparity images from the 2 eyes differ
sensory adaption sensory receptors less responsive to constant stimuli (biological) example: bandaid
senses vision: sight audition: hearing olfaction: smell gustation: taste tactition: touch
skin senses touch pressure (only skin sense that has identifiable receptors) temperature pain
tympanic membrane eardrum
inattentional blindness invisible gorrila
inner rear (AKA oval window) inner most part of the vertebrate ear; responsible for sound detection and balance
interposition the assumption that an object that is blocking another object is in front of the second object and closer to the viewer
kinesthetic sense the awarness of where body parts such as the legs arms, etc are located in relation to each other and the ground
linear perspective A cue to depth based on the convergence of parallel lines in two-dimensional representations; Linear perspective is the tendency for parallel lines to appear to converge on each other.
macula small sensitive area of the retina that gives central vision; located in the center of the retina and contains the fovea
middle ear transmits sounds from the outer ear to the inner ear; consists of 3 bones: hammer, anvil, stirrup
motion parallax perception of objects in which close objects appear to move faster than far away objects
outer ear consists of the pinna, auricle and the ear canal
perceptual set perceptual expectancy - the tendency to perceive things a certain way because previous experiences or expectations influence those perceptions
phi phenomenon lights turned on in a sequence appear to move
from perception organization of the visual field into objects (figures) that stand out from their surroundings (ground)
fovea central point in the retina around which the eye's cones cluster; gives sharpest vision
Gestalt Laws/Principles (GL) based on the idea that people have a natural tendency to force patters onto whatever they see
(GL) Figure-ground perceive objects or figures as existing on some background
(GL) Proximity perceive objects that are close to one another as part of the same group
(GL) similarity perceive things that look similar as being part of the same group
(GL) closure tendency to complete figures that are incomplete
(GL) continuity perceive things as simply as possible with a continuous pattern rather than with a complex, broken-up pattern
(GL) contiguity perceive 2 things that happen close together in time as being related (cause and effect)
(GL) common region perceive objects that are in a common area/region as being in a group
myelin sheath coat the axons of neurons to insulate, protect and speed up neural impulse
axon carries neural messages from the cell body to the axon terminals; attached to the cell body (soma)
dendrites "tree like" or "branch" receive messages from other cells; attached to the cell body (soma)
motor neurons carry messages from CNS to the voluntary or skeletal muscles - movement
interneurons transmits impulses between other neurons - reflex arc
sensory neurons carry signals from receptors to spinal cord and brain
auditory nerve bundle of axons from the hair cells in the inner ear
brightness constancy tendency to perceive objects as as certain level of brightness, even when the light changes
prosopagnosia face blindness
synesthesia tasting words
choice blindness jam experiment
convergence the closer an object the more inward our eyes need to turn to focus; the farther our eyes converge the closer an object appears to be
neurotransmitters chemiccal found in the synaptic vesicles that, when released, has an effect on the next cell. examples: acetylcholine, dopamine, serotonin, glutamate, gaba
acetylcholine stimulates the skeletal muscles to contact but slows cotractions in the heart muscle; blocked receptor sites: muscle paralysis; too much: convulsions/death (ex. spider bite)
dopamine too little in certain area of brain: parkinsons disease too much: schizophrenia
serotonin lower part of brain; low levels: depression, associated with sleep, mood, anxiety, appetite
glutamate learning/memory/development of nervous system and in synaptic plasticity too much: over activation & neuronal damage, cell death after stroke, head injury or in degenerative diseases (Alzheimer's, Huntington's)
gaba aminobutyric acid; calms anxiety, alcohol enhances GABA - makes you drunk
Pineas Gage iron rod through left cheekbone and out of the top of his head; the role of the frontal cortex in social cognition and decision making was recognized; frontal cortex involved in personality and behavior
synapse fluid-filled space between the axon and dendrite
reuptake process by which neurotransmitters are taken back into the synaptic vesicles
pituitary glad (master gland) located in the brain; secretes human growth hormone and influences all other hormone-secreting glands
hormones chemicals released into the bloodstream by the endocrine system
nervous system an extensive network of specialized cells that carries information to and from all parts of the body
CNS brain and spinal cord
PNS all nerves and neurons that are not contained in the brain and spinal cord but that run through the body itself; sympathetic (flight or flight, stressful events) parasympathetic (restores body to normal; day to day functioning of organs and glands)
Created by: amb5683