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Rad Bio Midterm 2

What are organic compounds? Compounds which contain carbon
How much of the cell is made up by proteins? 15%
What makes up proteins? Amino acids, of which there are 22 different kinds
What purpose do proteins serve? Two main categories are STRUCTURAL or ENZYMATIC. However, they may also function as hormones or antibodies under certain circumstances
What purpose do repair enzymes serve? They can fix cells exposed to small amounts of radiation
What are hormones? What do they do? They're organic chemical secretions (from the endocrine gland) which regulate body functions such as growth
What purpose do antibodies serve? Part of immume responde, they're produced by B-lymphocytes when foreign bodies (antigens) are detected by T-lymphocytes
What's another name for carbs? How much of cell do they may up? What do they do? Saccharides. 1% of cell. Provide fuel for metabolism (primarily glucose)
How much of the cell do lipids/fats make up? What are their purposes? 2%. Involved in long term energy storage, insulation, organ protection, joint lubrication, and digestion assistance
What is the basic unit of hereditary? Genes (finite sections of DNA containing specific segments of information)
How much of the human body is water? 80%.
Why is water so important? Within cell: acts as a solvent, site of metabolic activity. Outside cell: transports materials, maintains core temperature, lubricates digestive tract and skeletal articulations, and creayes protective cushion around the brain and lungs
What are the next 3 most important inorganic cell components after water? Salts/electrolytes, acids, bases
What is the cell membrane composed of? Lipids and proteins
What is anabolism? The metabolic function of "building up"
What is catabolism? The metabolic function of "breaking down"
Is the cell membrane permeable, semi-permeable, or impermeable? Semi-permeable
What are the two types of endoplasmic reticulum (ER)? Rough/granular, and smooth/agranular
What does the rough ER do? Synthesizes proteins with the help of ribosomes
What does the smooth ER do? Synthesizes non-protein products without ribosomes
Where is the Golgi apparatus? Near the nucleus
What does the Golgi apparatus do? Synthesizes carbs; packages and transports hormones and enzymes
What do mitochondria do? Oxidize carbs, lipids, and proteins to synthesize ATP (energy)
What could happen if a lysosome is ruptured? Why? It could destroy the cell because of leaked digestive enzymes
What are ribosomes? The actual site of protein synthesis
What separates the nucleus from the rest of the cell? What's it full of? The nuclear envelope, which is full of nucleoplasm
What is the nucleolus? Small rounded body within nucleus which manufactures and contains RNA, controls cell division, and supervises/coordinates cytoplasmic activities
What is mitosis? The division of somatic cells into two genetically identical 2n daughter cells
What is meiosis? The division of germ cells into four genetically unique 1n granddaughter cells (undergoes two reductive divisions)
Created by: Ewood61