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Research

MBA Applied Business Research

TermDefinition
Business Research the application of the scientific method in searching for the truth about business phenomena
the process of business research idea and theory development, problem definition, searching for and collecting information, analyzing data, communicating the findings and their implications
Basic Business Research (Pure Research) conducted without a specific decision in mind that usually does not address the needs of a specific organization
3 business orientations product-oriented, production-oriented, marketing-oriented
decision-making process 1. Identifying problems and opportunities, 2. diagnosing and assessing problems or opportunities 3. selecting and implementing a course of action 4. evaluating the course of action
need for research centers on time constraints, the availability of data, the nature of the decision to be made, and benefits versus costs
Evaluation Research the formal, objective measurement and appraisal of the extent a given activity, project, or program has achieved its objectives
Performance Monitoring Research research that regularly, sometimes routinely, provides feedback for evaluation and control of business activity
Measurement the process of describing some property of a phenomenon, usuallyby assigning numbers in a reliable and valid way
Concept a generalized idea about a class of objects, attributes, occurrences, or processes
Operationalization the process of identifying scales that correspond to variance in a concept involved in a research process
Scales a device providing a range of values that correspond to different characteristics or amounts of a characteristic exhibited in observing a conept
Correspondence Rules indicate the way that a certain value on a scale corresponds to some true value of a concept
Constructs concepts measured with multiple variables
STII Susceptibility to Interpersonal Influence
CRM Customer Relationship Management
Nominal a level of scale measurement that assigns a value to an object for identification or classification purposes; most elementary level of measurement
Ordinal a level of scale measurement that ranks scales allowing things to be arranged based on how much of some concept they possible; have nominal properties
Interval a level of scale measurement that captures information about differences in quantities of a concept; have both nominal and ordinal properties
Ratio a level of scale measurement that is the highest form of measurement; has all the properties of interval scales with the additional attribute of representing absolute quantities; absolute zero
Discrete Measures measures that can take on only one of a finite number of values
Continuous Measures measures that reflect the intensity of a concept by assigning values that can take on any value along some scale range
Attributes single characteristics or fundamental features that pertain to an object, person, or issue
Index Measures assign a value based on how much of the concept being measured is associated with an observation; often are formed by putting several variables together
Composite Measures assign a value to an observation based on a mathematical derivation of multiple variables
Summated Scale a scale created by simply summing (adding together) the response to each item making up the composite measure
Reverse Coding Means that the value assigned for a response is treated oppositely from the other items.
3 criteria for good measurement reliability, validity, sensitivity
Reliability the degree to which measures are free from random error therefore yield consistent results; an indicator of a measure's internal consistency
Internal Consistency represents a measure's homogeneity or the extent to which each indicator of a concept converges on some common meaning; measured by correlating scores on subsets of items making up a scale
Split-half method assessing internal consistency by checking the results of one-half of a set of scaled items against the results from the other half
Coefficient alpha the most commonly applied estimate of a multiple item scale's reliability; represents the average of all possible split-half reliabilities for a construct.
Test-retest Method administering the same scale or measure to the same respondents at two separate points in time to test for stability; represents a measure's repeatability
Validity the accuracy of a measure or the extent to which a score truthfully represents a concept
Face validity a scale's content logically appears to reflect what was intended to be measured
Content Validity the degree that measure covers the breadth of the domain of interest
Criterion Validity the ability of a measure to correlate with other standard measures of similar constructs or established criteria
Construct Validity exists when a measure reliably measures and truthfully represents a unique concept
Convergent Validity another way of expressing internal consistency; highly reliable scales contain this
Discriminant Validity represents how unique or distinct is a measure; a scale should not correlate too highly with a measure of a different construct
Sensitivity a measurement instrument's ability to accurately measure variability in stimuli or responses; generally increased by adding more response points or adding scale items
Subjects The sampling units for an experiment, usually human respondents who provide measures based on the experimental manipulation
Blocking Variables a categorical (less than interval) variable that is not manipulated like an experimental variable but is included in the statistical analysis of experiments
Experimental Condiditon one of the possible levels of an experimental variable manipulation
Main Effect the experimental difference in dependent variable means between the different levels of any single experimental variable
Interaction Effect differences in dependent variable means due to a specific combination of independent variables
Experimental Treatment the term referring to the way an experimental variable is manipulated
Experimental Group A group of subjects to whom an experimental treatment is administered
Control Group A group of subjects to whom no experimental treatment is administered
Cell Refers to a specific treatment combination associated with an experimental group
Repeated Measures experiments in which an individual subject is exposed to more than one level of an experimental treatment
Test Units the subjects or entities whose responses to the experimental treatment are measured or observed
Systematic or Nonsampling Error occurs if the sampling units in an experimental cell are somehow different that the units in another cell, and this difference affects the dependent variable
Randomization the random assignment of subjects and treatments to groups; it is one device for equally distributing the effects of extraneous variables to all conditions
Nuisance Variables items that may affect the dependent measure but are not of primary interest
Confound means that there is an alternative explanation beyond the experimental variables for any observed difference in the dependent variable
Extraneous Variables variables that naturally exist in the environment that may have some systematic effect on the dependent variable
Demand Characteristic experimental design element or procedure that unintentionally provides subjects with hints about the research hypothesis
Demand Effect occurs when demand characteristics actually affect the dependent variable
Hawthorne Effect people will perform differently from normal when they know they are experimental subjects
Placebo a false experimental condition aimed at creating the impression of an effect
Placebo Effect the effect in a dependent variable associated with the psychological impact that goes along with knowledge of some treatment being administered
Constancy of Conditions means that subjects in all experimental groups are exposed to identical conditions except for the differing experimental treatments
Counterbalancing attempts to eliminate the confounding effects of order of presentation by requiring that one-fourth of the subjects be exposed to treatment A first, one-fourth to B, one-fourth to C, and lastly one-fourth to D
Applied Business Research research conducted to address a specific business decision for a specific firm or organization
The Scientific Method The way researchers go about using knowledge and evidence to reach objective conclusions about the real world
Product-oriented Describes a firm that prioritizes decision making in a way that emphasizes technical superiority in the product
Production-oriented Describes a firm that prioritizes efficiency and effectiveness of the production processes in making decisions
Market-oriented Describes a firm in which all decisions are made with a conscious awareness of their effect on the customer
Cross-validation to verify that the empirical findings from one culture also exist and behave similarly in another culture
Raw Data the unedited information gathered from a respondent in the exact form as provided by that respondent
Nonrespondent Error error that the respondent is not responsible for creating, such as when the interviewer marks a response incorrectly
Data Integrity the notion that the data file actually contains the information that the researcher promised the decision maker he or she would obtain, meaning in part that the data have been edited and properly coded so that they are useful to the decision maker
Editing the process of checking the completeness, consistency, and legibility of data and making the data ready for coding and transfer to storage
Field Editing preliminary editing by a field supervisor on the same day as the interview to catch technical omissions, check legibility of handwriting, and clarify responses that are logically or conceptually inconsistent
In-house Editing a rigorous editing job performed by a centralized office staff
Item Nonresponse the technical term for an unanswered question on an otherwise complete questionnaire resulting in missing data
Plug Value an answer that an editor "plugs in" to replace blanks or missing values so as to permit data analysis; choice of value is based on a predetermined decision rule
Impute to fill in a missing data point through the use of a statistical algorithm that provides a best guess for the missing response based on available information
Coding the process of assigning a numerical score or other character symbol to previously edited data
Codes rules for interpreting, classifying, and recording data in the coding process; also, the actual numerical or other character symbols assigned to raw data
Dummy Coding numeric 0 or 1 coding where each number represents an alternate response such as "female" or "male"
Field a collection of characters that represents a single type of data-usually a variable
String Characters computer terminology to represent formatting a variable using a series of alphabetic characters (nonnumeric characters) that may form a word
Record a collection of related fields that represents the responses from one sampling unit
Data File the way a data set is stored electronically in spreadsheet-like form in which the rows represent sampling units and the columns represent variables
Value Labels unique labels assigned to each possible numeric code for a sresponse
Test Tabulation tallying of a small sample of the total number of replies to a particular question in order to construct coding categories
Code Book a book that identifies each variable in a study and gives the variable's description, code name, and position in the data matrix
Data Entry the activity of transferring data from a research project to computers
Optical Scanning System a data processing input device that reads material directly from mark-sensed questionnaires
Qualitative Business Research research that addresses business objectives through techniques that allow the researcher to provide elaborate interpretations of phenomena without depending on numerical measurement; its focus is on discovering true inner meanings and new insight
Communication Process the process by which one person or source sends a message to an audience or receiver and then receives feedback about the message
Research Report an oral presentation or written statement of research results, strategic recommendations, and /or other conclusions to a specific audience
Report Format the makeup or arrangement of parts necessary to a good research report
Introduction Section the part of the body of a research report that discusses background information and the specific objective of the research
Research Methodology Section the part of the body of a report that presents the findings of the project. It includes tables, charts, and an organized narrative
Results Section the part of the body of a report that presents the findings of the project. It includes tables, charts, and an organized narrative
Conclusions and Recommendations Section the part of the body of a report that provides opinions based on the results and suggestions for action
Graphic Aids pictures or diagrams used to clarify complex points or emphasize a message
Oral Presentation a spoken summary of the major findings, conclusions, and recommendations, given to clients or line managers to provide them with the opportunity to clarify any ambiguous issues by asking questions
Research Follow-up recontacting decision makers and/or clients after they have had a chance to read over a research report in order to determine whether additional information or clarification is necessary
Descriptive Statistics statics that summarize and describe the data in a simple and unerstandable manner
Inferential Statistics using statistics to project characteristics from a sample to an entire population
Sample Statistics variables in a sample or measures computed from sample data
Population Parameters variables in a population or measured characteristics of the population
Created by: MarieClaireR