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VET 260 Final Review

Review quesitons for Radiology final

Esophagography Contrast radiography of the esophagus
Upper gastrointestinal study Made to examine the stomach
Lower gastrointestinal study Exam of the cecum, colon, and rectum
Excretory Urography Determines the size, shape, location, and integrity of the kidneys
Retrograde Cystography Study of the bladder
Urethrography Filling the urethra with contrast media to evaluate it
Myelography Exam of subarachnoid space in either the cerebellomedullary cistern or the lumbar region
Digital Radiography (DR) Eliminates the entire processing and hanging steps as well as the cassette preparation
Computerized Radiology (CR) Eliminates reloading the film into the cassette
Computerized Tomography (CT) Took standard analog images on film and transformed them into digital images with the use of computers
Fluoroscopy Provide dynamic real-time imaging of anatomical structures
Ultrasound Allows the area of interest to be visualized over a prolonged period as a continuous feed
Magnetic Resonance Imaging (MRI) Uses a magnetic field and radio frequencies to determine the chemical makeup of a substance
Nuclear Medicine Diagnosis by means of radioisotopes
The atom, as we finally recognize it, contains a: Nucleus with electrons encircling it
Electrons have: A negative charge
The half-life of a radioactive element describes: The time required for the quantity of radioactivity to be reduced by one half
Alpha particles: Carry two units of positive charge
X-rays are: Produced in the outer shells of the atoms
Photons: Are packages of energy
According to the inverse square law: The intensity decreases rapidly as the distance from the source increases
Ionization is: A process why which radiation reacts with matter
The x-ray beam contains: A polychromatic spectrum of energies
In the production of x-rays a certain amount of heat is produced. What percentage of heat is produced compared with the amount of radiation? 99%
The x-ray tube: Is a vacuum tube containing an anode and a cathode
The target material must: Have a high atomic number
The tube filament is composed of: Tungsten
A stationary anode will be used in a: Dental unit
Healthcare workers must demonstrate: The knowledge, skills, and judgement to work safely
The ALARA principle is an anagram for: As Low As Reasonably Achievable
In the x-ray room, radiation is produced: Within an x-ray tube that has an anode and a cathode
Ionizing radiation occurs when: The orbital electrons are dislodged from the atom
X-rays have properties that allow them to: Deflect off surfaces but with a loss of energy
Radiation protection to the individual is important: Particularly during the time that a person may reproduce
The fetus will be affected by radiation: Particularly during the first trimester (the second to tenth weeks)
Three methods of protection are time, distance, and shielding: Time measures the amount of exposure during the examination
The dose to the radiation worker increases: If the worker does not limit the time of his/her exposure
Dose increases when the: Object moves closer to the source of the radiation
Leaded gowns must be worn: By any healthcare worker who remains in an imaging room during radiography
The care of leaded aprons should include: Hanging them by the shoulders with no folds or creases
The Occupational Health and Safety Act: Specifies that the employer is responsible for health care worker safety
Every healthcare worker who assists with an x-ray procedure: Must be provided with appropriate and correct protection
Licensed Veterinary Technicians can: Wear 0.5 mm lead equivalent aprons (at 125 kV) and stay out of the direct radiation
You have positioned a patient on its back, directing the beam to enter the abdomen and exit through the back. This is known as a(n) ___ projection VD
You are radiographing the right hind leg of an immature dog. Generally you should also: Image the opposite corresponding limb for comparison
The measurement for any anatomic region is generally taken: Over the thickest part to ensure that all regions of the area of interest will be sufficiently penetrated
You want to review a radiograph of a lateral radius/ulna on a Labrador Retriever. You should view the image so that: The proximal part of the limb points up and the cranial or dorsal aspect of the limb is to your left
For pelvic limbs ___ is used to designate the area distal to and including the tarsus DPl
The term ___ is added to the names of those projections in which the central ray does not pass through the body part parallel to one of the three major directional axes O
The reason why you slip your hand out of the glove while restraining the head of a dog and take the radiograph with the glove still in place is to: Give the patient the impression that you are still restraining it
To properly view and assess a lateral chest radiograph, position the radiograph on the illuminator so that: The cranial part of the patient is on your left
Which of the following should be completed before final positioning of the patient occurs on the table? Setting the exposure factors on the machine console; Positioning the cassette; Measuring the patient
When radiographing the abdomen: The two positions commonly viewed are the right or left lateral and ventrodorsal
Abdominal compression: Moves an underlying organ to improve the visualization of a suspected lesion
You want to obtain a lateral abdomen view in a dog; normally, you will measure: The caudal aspect of the 13th rib at level of umbilicus
You have just positioned a cat for a lateral projection of the abdomen and will collimate borders Cranially form the caudal aspect of T7 and caudally to the greater trochanter
You want to obtain a lateral abdominal radiograph in a patient with consistent vomiting. You decide to: Use left lateral positioning to try to move gas into the pyloric antrum
In a ventrodorsal view of the abdomen, you should see that: Spinous processes are aligned in the center of the vertebral bodies
When you take a ventrodorsal view of a male dog, and the penis is superimposed over the bladder, what might you try next? Oblique
The abdominal image of a cat's small intestine reveals a structure that resembles a string of pearls. This is due to: Normal peristalsis of the intestines
The veterinarian is studying an image of a feline stomach taken in the right lateral position and notices a soft tissue opacity that appears to be a foreign body. To confirm she may suggest: Completing a left lateral view for comparison
Which of the following views is important to decrease your time of exposure? Thorax
The veterinarian needs a ventrodorsal thorax. Borders in your final image should include the: Cranial point of the scapulohumeral articulation (thoracic inlet) to the caudal aspect of the 13th rib (full diaphragm)
The positional term used to describe the part of the pelvic limb found toward the tail and proximal to the tarsus (hock) is? Caudal
Two views at 180 degree angles from each other are always required for each anatomic part. True or False? False
The anatomic area of interest should be as close to the film as possible in order to do the following... Reduce distortion
If an animal's thorax is radiographed while in right lateral recumbency, what marker should be used? RL
The name of the tool used to measure the area or origin is called... Caliper
Film identification is mandatory on all radiographs. True or False? True
Always identify the right or left side of the patient. True or False? True
Which of the following is true? During expiration the diaphragm is more cranial than during inspiration
How should a patient be positioned to isolate the scapula as much as possible? Lateral recumbency with the affected limb closest to the cassette
To optimally view the scapulohumeral joint... The unaffected limb must be pulled caudodorsally while patient is in lateral recumbency
Where should the measurement be taken for a craniocaudal view of the humerus? Proximal end of the humerus
The lateral view of the elbow requires that... The unaffected limb be pulled caudodorsally
Where should the measurement for the radius and ulna in craniocaudal view be taken? Distal humerus
A radiograph of the metacarpus-phalanges require that... The beam be centered over the middle of the metacarpal bones
What is the most appropriate method to separate a digit from the others in order to radiograph it separately while the limb is positioned laterally? With tape
Only one view of the humerus is necessary because it easily separated from the rest of the body to avoid superimposition. True or False? False
When radiographing a long bone, the joints immediately proximal and distal to the bone must be included. True or False? True
You need a craniocaudal view of the humerus. You place the patient in dorsal recumbency. How is the affected limb positioned? Pulled cranially
For views distal to and including the tarsus the positions are termed: DPl
For views of the hind limb distal to and including the stifle, the patient is in dorsal recumbency with the affected rear limb pulled caudally, so the positions are referred to as ___ for the stifle, tibia, and fibula CrCd
Along with the lateral view, the additional view for the pelvis is the: VD
The best view to ensure a clear view of joint laxity in a patient with moderate hip dysplasia is the: PennHIP
For a radiograph to be eligible for OFA registration, it must include: Hospital or veterinarian's name, the date, and the registered patient name or number
You are about to take a ventrodorsal hip-extended view for a small dog. You will place the patient in dorsal recumbency measure the thickest part of the pelvis and: Direct the central ray midline at the caudal portion of the ischium
Which describes accurate positioning involved with a ventrodorsal hip-extended view for small mammals? Rotate femurs so patellae lie over patellar groove with femurs parallel and level with the table
To position your patient for a ventrodorsal frog-leg view of the pelvis, you will: Leave hind limbs in natural flexion (usually 45 degrees to the spine; 90 degrees in some larger dogs)
The PennHIP method: Measures joint laxity to determine how likely a dog is to develop canine hip dysplasia (CHD) and hip arthritis later in life
The three radiographs that comprise a PennHIP evaluation must include: Ventrodorsal hip-extended view; Distraction view; Compression view
The x-ray cassette is a film holder: It must be sturdy and have a strong reliable closure
The front of the x-ray cassette: Must be radiolucent and free of artifacts
The purpose of an intensifying screen is to: Convert the primary x-ray beam to light
The intensifying screen is composed of a ___ and a(n) ___ Base; Reflective layer
Rare earth elements are so named because they are ___ and ___ efficient than calcium tungstate Difficult to mine from the earth; More
Light that is emitted upon exposure is the reaction of the screen to the light photos; the reaction is called: Fluorescence
If the screen continues to emit light after the photon source is removed, the effect is called: Phosphorescence or afterglow
Two types of film are ___ emulsion and ___ emulsion film Double-side; Single-side
Screen speed is determined by the ___ of the emulsion and the ___ of the silver halide crystals Thickness; Size
Film emulsion is composed of mainly: Silver halide crystals and gelatin
If a film is exposed to alternate energy it can potentially overexpose the film; This may be caused by heat, light, or chemical fumes
Chemical spills: Damage screens and film and are preventable with good darkroom protocols
Heat and humidity will cause: The films in the box to stick together and therefore unusable
New unused boxes of film should be stored: Upright and unaffected by radiation and heat
X-ray film has an expiration date, which should be: Checked often and taken into consideration if the films are underexposed
kV affects the image, primarily in the range of: Contrast
If kV is significantly increased, the effect on the image will be: Decreased contrast
Quantity of the beam refers to: The intensity of the beam and number of electrons
Quality of the beam refers to: The penetration of the beam
Milliampere-seconds (mAs) contributes mainly to: Density
The vast majority of repeated radiographs are caused by: Improper positioning or incorrect choice of exposure factors
kVp determines: Penetration
Radiographic contrast The density difference between two adjacent areas on a radiograph (background vs. body)
Subject contrast The difference in density and mass between two adjacent structures (bone vs. muscle)
The amount of blackness on the film refers to Radiographic density
What is the most common anatomical area on a radiograph where motion or blur may be seen? Thorax
What is the term used to describe an area on the radiograph that generally is caused by the beam not being perpendicular to the film? Elongation
What is the purpose of a grid? To reduce scatter radiation
Where is the most common place to find a grid? (Not including a DR system) Cassette
What determines grid efficiency? Height, thickness, and number of lead strips
What is the most common grid ratio seen in small animal practice? 8:1
Grid cutoff can be a result of: Improper alignment; Tilting of the tube; Tilting the grid; or Grid being placed upside down
Which type of grid can be used with oblique views? Lateral
Which grid prevents the most scatter radiation? Crossed
Created by: SilverSWolfe